Amelioration of Cadmium-Induced Nephropathy using Polyphenol-rich Extract of Vernonia amygdalina (Del.) Leaves in Rat Model
Keywords:Cadmium, Polyphenol - Rich Extract of leaves of Vernonia amygdalina (PEVA), Nephrotoxicity, Creatinine clearance, Ameliorative, Rats
AIM: To determine the effects of polyphenol-rich extract of the leaves of Vernonia amygdalina (PEVA) in rats with Cd-induced nephropathy.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty five male Wistar rats were divided into five groups as follows; Group 1 received distilled water throughout the period of study. Group 2 received 5 mg/kg body weight of cadmium (Cd), in the form of CdSO4, for five consecutive days via intraperitoneal route. Groups 3, 4 and 5 were pretreated with Cd as group 2 and thereafter received oral treatment of PEVA for 4 weeks at 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight, respectively.
RESULTS: Exposure to Cd toxicity significantly induced deleterious alterations in plasma and urine levels of creatinine, urea and glucose as well as creatinine and urea clearance (p < 0.05) in the rat model. There was a significant disturbance in the antioxidant system as revealed by the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH) (p < 0.05) in the kidney tissue of the rats. With marked improvements in renal histoarchitecture, PEVA treatment showed a duration and non dose-dependent ameliorative potential.CONCLUSION: PEVA treatment reversed the compromise of renal function that was induced by Cd toxicity in rat model.
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