Hepatitis B virus Genotypes in West Azarbayjan Province, Northwest Iran


  • Mohammad Hasan Khadem Ansari Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia
  • Yousef Rasmi Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran; Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia
  • Laya Abbasi Department of Microbiology, Azad Islamic University-Urmia Branch, Urmia




Hepatitis B Genotype, HBsAg, Nested PCR, Sequencing


BACKGROUND: Infections caused by Hepatitis B are one of the world health’s most serious problems. According to assessments, nearly 500,000 to 1.2 million people die each year due to chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis of the liver and hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatitis B is one of the diseases which can be transferred through blood and its products. Clinical importance of genotypes of hepatitis B virus and their relations with mutations are well known.

AIM: Since epidemiological data resulting from determining genotypes and sub-genotypes of hepatitis B can help a lot in defining a vaccination plan, antiretroviral therapy, detection and prevention of diseases, genotypes of this virus in hepatitis B patients was evaluated in West Azarbaijan province.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, serum samples of 100 hepatitis B patients which were taken randomly from Urmia University of Medical Sciences (UMSU) referrals, Urmia, Iran; and were tested positive for the presence of surface antigens of hepatitis B virus (HBsAg) using ELISA method. In the first method, after extracting the DNA of the virus, sequencing of S genes was carried out using Sanger method, and the sequences were aligned and edited using Bioedit software. In the next step, phylogenic analysis of the sequences was done in comparison with the reference sequences which were extracted from a gene bank, utilising Neighbour-joining assay method with CLUSTRAL W software. To ensure genotyping accuracy, the samples were tested once more, using Nested PCR method.

RESULTS: The results were consistent with the sequence method and the dominant genotype in patients suffering hepatitis was type D. In other words, Iranian’s HBV genotypic types are homogeneous and in close coordination with each other.

CONCLUSIONS: The results reveal that D genotype is the main genotype of HBV in West Azarbayjan province. Presence of this genotype conformed with the low rate of acute liver diseases caused by hepatitis B chronic infection, cirrhosis of the liver and hepatocellular carcinoma.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...

Plum Analytics Artifact Widget Block


Kuhns MC, Busch MP. New strategies for blood donor screening for hepatitis B virus. Infectious diseases. 2006; 10(2): 77-91.

Mojiri A, Behzad-Behbahani A, Saberifirozi M, Ardabili M, Beheshti M, et al. Hepatitis B virus genotypes in southwest Iran: Molecular, serological and clinical outcomes. World J Gastroenterol. 2008; 14(10): 1510-1513. https://doi.org/10.3748/wjg.14.1510 PMid:18330939 PMCid:PMC2693743

Chu CJ, Keeffe EB, Han SH, Perrillo RP, Min AD, et al. Hepatitis B virus genotypes in the United States: results of a nationwide study. Gastroenterology. 2003; 125(2): 444-451. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-5085(03)00895-3

Arauze-Ruiz P, Norder H, BH. R, Genotpye H. A new Amerindian genotype of hepatitis B virus revealed in Central America. Journal of General Virology. 2002; 83: 2059-2073. https://doi.org/10.1099/0022-1317-83-8-2059 PMid:12124470

Sanchez-Tapias JM, Costa J. Influence of hepatitis B virus genotype on the long term out come of chronic hepatitis B in western patients. Gastroenterology. 2002; 123: 1848-1856. https://doi.org/10.1053/gast.2002.37041 PMid:12454842

Kao JH, Chen PJ, Lai MY, Chen DS. Hepatitis B virus genotype s and spont aneous hepa t i t i s B e ant ige n seroconversion in Taiwanese hepatitis B carriers. J Med Virol. 2004; 72: 363-369. https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.10534 PMid:14748059

Kidd-Ljunggren K, Miyakawa Y, Kidd AH. Genetic variability in hepatitis B viruses. J General Virol. 2002; 83(6): 1267-1280. https://doi.org/10.1099/0022-1317-83-6-1267 PMid:12029141

Stuyver L, De Gendt S, Van Geyt C, Zoulim F, Fried M, et al. A new genotype of hepatitis B virus: complete genome and phylogenetic relatedness. J Gen Virol. 2000; 81 67-74. https://doi.org/10.1099/0022-1317-81-1-67 PMid:10640543

Alavian SM, Keyvani H, Rezai M, Ashayeri N, Sadeghi HM. Preliminary report of hepatitis B virus genotype prevalence in Iran. World J Gastroenterol. 2006; 12: 5211-5213. PMid:16937535 PMCid:PMC4088022

Liu CJ, Kao JH. Global perspective on the natural history of chronic hepatitis B: role of hepatitis B virus genotypes A to J. Semin Liver Dis. 2013; 33: 97-102. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0033-1345716 PMid:23749665

Haghshenas MR, Arabi M, Mousavi T. Hepatitis B genotypes in iran. Mater Sociomed. 2014; 26:129-133. https://doi.org/10.5455/msm.2014.26.129-133 PMid:24944540 PMCid:PMC4035145

Merat S, Malekzadeh R, Rezvan H, Khatibian M. Hepatitis B in Iran. Arch Iran Med. 2000;3(4):192-201.

Geramizadeh B, Kaboli R, Behzad-Behbahani A, Rahsaz M, Azarpira N, et al. A nested PCR method for the identification of hepatitis B virus genotype in paraffin blocks of formalin-fixed liver biopsies. Arch Iran Med. 2008; 11: 455-458. PMid:18588380

Farzadegan H, Harbour C, Ala F. The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen and its antibody in blood donors and high risk groups in Iran. Vox Sang. 197; 37: 182-186.

Aghakhani A, Hamkar R, Zamani N, Eslamifar A, Banifazl M, Saadat A, Sofian M, Adibi L, Irani N, Mehryar M, Akbari HM. Hepatitis B virus genotype in Iranian patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2009;13(6):685-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2008.10.009 PMid:19138545

Lavanchy D. Hepatitis B virus epidemiology, disease burden, treatment, and current and emerging prevention and control measures. J Viral Hepat. 2004; 11: 97-107. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2893.2003.00487.x PMid:14996343

Kidd-Ljunggren K, Miyakawa Y, Kidd AH. Genetic variability in hepatitis B viruses. J General Virol. 2002; 83(6): 1267-1280. https://doi.org/10.1099/0022-1317-83-6-1267 PMid:12029141

Mumtaz K, Hamid S, Ahmed S, Moatter T, Mushtaq S, et al. A study of genotypes, mutants and nucleotide sequence of hepatitis B virus in Pakistan: HBV genotypes in pakistan. Hepat Mon. 2011; 11(1):14-18. PMid:22087110 PMCid:PMC3206661

Kao JH, Chen PJ, Lai MY, Chen DS. Occult hepatitis B virus infection and clinical outcomes of patients with chronic hepatitis C. J Clin Microbiol. 2002; 40(11): 4069-4071. https://doi.org/10.1128/JCM.40.11.4068-4071.2002 PMCid:PMC139665

Arababadi MK, Nasiri Ahmadabadi B, Yousefi Daredor H, Kennedy D. Epidemiology of occult hepatitis B infection among thalassemic, hemophilia, and hemodialysis patients. Hepat Mon. 2012; 12(5): 315-319. https://doi.org/10.5812/hepatmon.5934 PMid:22783342 PMCid:PMC3389356

Mayerat C, Mantegani A, Frei C. Does hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype influence the clinical outcome of HBV infection? J Viral Hepat. 1999; 6: 299-304. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2893.1999.00174.x PMid:10607244

Eftekhari Y, Arababadi MK, Hakimi H, Zarandi ER. Common HBV Genotype in Southeastern Iranian Patients. Arch Iran Med. 2010; 13 (2):147-149. PMid:20187670

Alavian SM, Asari S, Manzori-Joybari H. Prevalence and risk factors of HDV infection in HBV infected cases. Govaresh. 2004; 9: 217-221.

Kar P, Polipalli SK, Chattopadhyay S, Hussain Z, Malik A, et al. Prevalence of hepatitis B virus genotype D in precore mutants among chronic liver disease patients from New Delhi, India. Dig Dis Sci. 2007; 52(2): 565-569. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10620-006-9625-z PMid:17211692

Saha MK, Chakrabarti S, Panda S, Naik TN, Manna B, et al. Prevalence of HCV & HBV infection amongst HIV seropositive intravenous drug users & their non-injecting wives in Manipur, India. Indian J Med Res. 2000; 111: 37-39. PMid:10824464

Abdo AA, Al-Jarallah BM, Sanai FM, Hersi AS, Al-Swat K, et al. (Hepatitis B genotypes: relation to clinical outcome in patients with chronic hepatitis B in Saudi Arabia). World J Gastroenterol. 2006; 12(43): 7019-7024. https://doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v12.i43.7019 PMid:17109498 PMCid:PMC4087347

Yalcin K, Degertekin H, Bahcecioglu IH, Demir A, Aladag M, et al. Hepatitis B virus genotype D prevails in patients with persistently elevated or normal ALT levels in Turkey. Infection. 2004; 32(1): 24-29. https://doi.org/10.1007/s15010-004-3010-7 PMid:15007739

Vaezjalali M, Alavian SM, Jazayeri SM, Nategh R, Mahmoodi M, et al. Genotype of Hepatitis B Virus Isolates from Iranian Chronic Carriers of the Virus. Hepatitis Monthly. 2008; 8(2): 97-100.

Kramvis A, Restorp K, Norder H, Botha JF, Magnius LO, et al. Full genome analysis of hepatitis B virus genotype E strains from South-Western Africa and Madagascar reveals low genetic variability. J Med Virol. 2005; 47-52: 77.

Alavian SM, Tabatabaei SV. Meta-analysis of factors associated with sustained viral response in patients on hemodialysis treated with standard or pegylated interferon for hepatitis C infection. Iran J Kidney Dis. 2010; 4: 181-194. PMid:20622305



How to Cite

Khadem Ansari MH, Rasmi Y, Abbasi L. Hepatitis B virus Genotypes in West Azarbayjan Province, Northwest Iran. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2017 Dec. 11 [cited 2022 Dec. 6];5(7):875-9. Available from: https://oamjms.eu/index.php/mjms/article/view/oamjms.2017.206



A - Basic Science