Sarcoidosis in A. C. Milan (1899)?
Keywords:Sarcoidosis, Sarcoid - type reaction, Cutaneous granuloma, Molecular mimicry, Tattoo, Exogenous pigment
The pathogenesis, diagnosis and therapy of sarcoidosis as an autonomous disease are subjects of spirited discussions, which havenâ€™t found definitive conclusion yet. Distinguishing between sarcoidosis and sarcoid-like reactions (sarcoid - type granulomas) is not currently a medical â€œgold standardâ€ and is not implemented in clinical practice. This leads to 1) misinterpretation of numerous available data; 2) difficulty in the interpretation of other unverified data, which is often followed by 3) inappropriate or inadequate therapeutic approach. Similarly to many other diseases, in sarcoidosis and sarcoid - types of reactions the concept of personalised approach and therapy should also be introduced. This methodology of clinical guidance is difficult, complex and not always achievable in the current medical status and relations (doctor-patient relationship; financial factor; time factor). It is appropriate to note that in some cases the guidelines or the so-called standards are neglected or not possible to put into practice with the aim of better therapeutic practices and strategies, as well as the achievement of optimal final clinical results (especially in patients with sarcoid granulomas). The sarcoid granuloma, even when it is sterile, should not be considered as the equivalent of sarcoidosis, i.e., sarcoidosis as an autonomous disease. Sure enough, exactly because of this fact, the personalised approach should not be an exception, but it has to gradually become a rule in medical practice. When clinical decisions are conformed to some of the latest modern concepts, officialised in the international databases, often the achieved results can be much better.
We present a patient with a tattoo of AC Milan (1899) on his right arm, who subsequently developed localised sterile sarcoid granulomas in the area of the tattoo. Later the process became generalised on his whole bodyâ€™s skin, lungs and lymph nodes. It is unclear for the moment whether this condition should be interpreted as sarcoidosis as an autonomous disease or, instead, as a sarcoidal type of reaction with subsequent generalisation due to cross-reactivity against antigens present in other tissues with similarities to the exogenous pigments. Following the modern concepts regarding the pathogenesis of these two conditions, we introduced, in this case, an innovative, non-standard approach: 1) systemic and local immunosuppressive therapy, combined with 2) recommÐµndation for immediate surgical excision of the tattoo to remove the possible trigger of molecular and antigen mimicry.
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