An Anthropometric Study of Cranio-Facial Measurements and Their Correlation with Vertical Dimension of Occlusion among Saudi Arabian Subpopulations


  • Muhammed Irfan Majeed Department of Prosthodontics, College of Dentistry, King Khalid University
  • Satheesh B. Haralur College of Dentistry, King Khalid University
  • Muhammed Farhan Khan Department of Prosthodontics, College of Dentistry, King Khalid University
  • Maram Awdah Al Ahmari Department of Prosthodontics, College of Dentistry, King Khalid University
  • Nourah Falah Al Shahrani Department of Prosthodontics, College of Dentistry, King Khalid University
  • Sharaz Shaik Department of Prosthodontics, College of Dentistry, King Khalid University



Anthropometric measurements, the Vertical dimension of occlusion, Cranio-facial measurements, Full mouth rehabilitation


BACKGROUND: Determining and restoring physiological vertical dimension of occlusion (VDO) is the critical step during complete mouth rehabilitation. The improper VDO compromises the aesthetics, phonetics and functional efficiency of the prosthesis.  Various methods are suggested to determine the accurate VDO, including the facial measurements in the clinical situations with no pre-extraction records. The generalisation of correlation between the facial measurements to VDO is criticised due to gender dimorphism and racial differences. Hence, it is prudent to verify the hypothesis of facial proportion and correlation of lower third of the face to remaining craniofacial measurements in different ethnic groups. The objective of the study was to evaluate the correlation of craniofacial measurements and OVD in the Saudi-Arabian ethnic group.

METHODOLOGY: Total of 228 participants from Saudi-Arabian Ethnic group were randomly recruited in this cross-sectional study. Fifteen craniofacial measurements were recorded with modified digital Vernier callipers, and OVD was recorded at centric occlusion. The obtained data were analysed by using the Spearman’s correlation and linear regression analysis.

RESULTS: The Mean OVD in male participants was higher (69.25 ± 5.54) in comparison to female participants (57.41 ± 5.32).  The craniofacial measurement of Exocanthion-right labial commissure and the Mesial wall of the right external auditory canal-orbitale lateral had a strong positive correlation with VDO. The strong correlation was recorded with a trichion-upper border of right eyebrow line and trichion-Nasion only in males. Meanwhile, the length of an auricle recorded the positive correlation in female participants.

CONCLUSIONS: Being simple and non-invasive technique, craniofacial measurements and linear equations could be routinely utilised to determine VDO.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


de Almeida Rde C, da Rosa WL, Boscato N. The Effect of Occlusal Splint Pretreatment on Mandibular Movements and Vertical Dimension of Occlusion in Long-Term Complete Denture Wearers. Int J Prosthodont. 2016; 29(3):287-9. PMid:27148992

Al Baker A, Habib SR, Al Amri MD. Preserving esthetics, occlusion and occlusal vertical dimension in a patient with fixed prostheses seeking dental implant treatment. Saudi Dent J. 2016; 28(4):203-8. PMid:27872552 PMCid:PMC5110469

The Glossary of Prosthodontic Terms. J Prosthet Dent. 2005; 94:10–92.

Wang W, Wang J, Lu HY, Ma WS, Dong FS, Hu XY, et al. The effects of increasing occlusal vertical dimension on the deep masseter of rat at different ages. Arch Oral Biol. 2017; 74:12-20. PMid:27842253

Alhajj MN, Khalifa N, Abduo J, Amran AG, Ismail IA. Determination of occlusal vertical dimension for complete dentures patients: an updated review. J Oral Rehabil. 2017; 44(11):896-907. PMid:28600914

Yanikoglu ND, Guldag MU, Duymus ZY. Determination of the occlusal vertical dimension: use of maxillary and mandibular posterior teeth measurement in edentate subjects. Eur J Prosthodont Restor Dent. 2005; 13(2):75-7. PMid:16011235

Silverman MM. The speaking method in measuring vertical dimension. J Prosthet Dent. 1953; 3:193–199.

Strajnic L, Stanisic-Sinobad D, Markovic D, Stojanovic L. Cephalometric indicators of the vertical dimension of occlusion. Coll Antropol. 2008; 32(2):535-41. PMid:18756907

Turner LC. The profile tracer: method for obtaining accurate pre-extraction records. J Prosthet Dent. 1969; 21(4):364-70.

Johnson A, Wildgoose DG, Wood DJ. The determination of freeway space using two different methods. J Oral Rehabil. 2002; 29(10):1010-3. PMid:12421334

Orenstein NP, Bidra AS, Agar JR, Taylor TD, Uribe F, Litt MD. Changes in Lower Facial Height and Facial Esthetics with Incremental Increases in Occlusal Vertical Dimension in Dentate Subjects. Int J Prosthodont. 2015; 28(4):363-70. PMid:26218018

Shanahan TE. Physiologic vertical dimension and centric relation. 1956. J Prosthet Dent. 2004; 91(3):206-9. PMid:15060486

Yamashita S, Shimizu M, Katada H. A Newly Proposed Method to Predict Optimum Occlusal Vertical Dimension. J Prosthodont. 2015; 24(4):287-90. PMid:25251764

Igic M, Krunic N, Aleksov L, Kostic M, Igic A, Petrovic MB, et al. Determination of vertical dimension of occlusion by using the phonetic vowel "O" and "E". Vojnosanit Pregl. 2015; 72(2):123-31. PMid:25831903

Bissasu M. Use of a patient's old complete denture to determine vertical dimension of occlusion. J Prosthet Dent. 2001; 85:413–414. PMid:11319541

Ladda R, Bhandari AJ, Kasat VO, Angadi GS. A new technique to determine vertical dimension of occlusion from anthropometric measurements of fingers. Indian J Dent Res. 2013; 24(3):316-20. PMid:24025877

Farkas L. Examination. In: Farkas L, editor. Anthropometry of the head and face. 2nd ed. New York: Raven Press, 1994:3-56.

Delic Z, Vukovojac S, Grzic R, Maricic D, Kovac Z,Kovacevic D. Evaluation of craniometric methods for determination of vertical dimension of occlusion–Part 2. Coll Antropol. 2003; 27(Suppl 1):191–194. PMid:12955909

Misch CE. Clinical indications for altering vertical dimension of occlusion. Objective vs subjective methods for determining vertical dimension of occlusion. Quintessence international (Berlin, Germany: 1985). 2000; 31(4):280-2.

Ivy RS. Dental and Facial Types. In: The American System of Dentistry. Operative and Prosthetic Dentistry. vol. 2. Pentland, Edinburgh, 1887:1030.

Farkas LG, Katic MJ, Forrest CR, Alt KW, Bagic I, Baltadjiev G, et al. International anthropometric study of facial morphology in various ethnic groups/races. J Craniofac Surg. 2005; 16(4):615-46. PMid:16077306

Fenn HRB, Liddelow KP, Gimson AP. Clinical dental prosthesis. Ed.1 Staples press, London, 1953: 191.

Boyanov B. Speedy and Exact Determining of the Vertical Dimension and Centric Relation of Edentulous Jaws. J Istanbul Univ. 1974; 8:9–18.

Chou TM, Moore DJ, Young L Jr, Glaros AG. A diagnostic craniometric method for determining occlusal vertical dimension. J Prosthet Dent. 1994; 71:568–574.

Al-Dhaher HA, AL-Huwaizi AFDetermination of the vertical dimension by cranio-facial measurement using clinical and cephalometric analysis (comparative study). J Bagh College Dentistry. 2009; 21:44–47.

Al-Hamdany AK, Kassab NH. Correlation of vertical dimen¬sions of soft tissue facial profiles. Al-Rafidain Dent J. 2010; 10(2): 243–253.

Kulkarni N, Kohli M. Estimation and correlation of individual facial height and total body height. J Int Oral Health. 2011; 3(2):37–42.

Oladipo GS, Esomonu C, Osogba IG. Craniofacial dimensions of Ijaw children and adolescents in Nigeria. J Biomed Int. 2010; 1(1):25-9.

Pound E. The mandibular movements of speech and their seven related values. J South Calif Dent Assoc. 1966; 34(9):435-41.

Nagpal A, Parkash H, Bhargava A, Chittaranjan B: Reliability of different facial measurements for determination of vertical dimension of occlusion in edentulous using accepted facial dimensions recorded from dentulous subjects. J Indian Prosthodont Soc. 2014; 14(3):233-242. PMid:25183907 PMCid:PMC4148510

Majeed MI, Saleem T. Craniofacial Measurements for the determination of Occlusal Vertical Dimension and Gender Dimorphism in a Section of Pakistani Population. Med Forum. 2015; 26(1):55-57.

Akhma NE, Sumarsongko T, Rikmasari R. Correlation between the occlusal vertical dimension and the pupil rima oris distance among sundanese population. Padjadjaran Journal of Dentistry. 2017; 29(2):630-137.

Basnet BB, Parajuli PK, Singh RK, Suwal P, Shrestha P, Baral D. An anthropometric study to evaluate the correlation between the occlusal vertical dimension and length of the thumb. Clinical, cosmetic and investigational dentistry. 2015; 7:33. PMid:25678817 PMCid:PMC4322952

Abdul-Rassol M. Facial Measurement Method for Determining Occlusal Vertical Dimension. AL-Taqani J. 2007; 20:13–17.

Abu-Amero KK, Hellani A, Gonzalez AM, Larruga JM, Cabrera VM, Underhill PA. Saudi Arabian Y-Chromosome diversity and its relationship with nearby regions. BMC genetics. 2009; 10:59. PMid:19772609 PMCid:PMC2759955

Aldrees AM. Lateral cephalometric norms for Saudi adults: A meta-analysis. The Saudi dental journal. 2011; 23(1):3-7. PMid:24151411 PMCid:PMC3770244

Hassan AH. Cephalometric Norms for Saudi Adults Living in the Western Region of Saudi Arabia. The Angle Orthodontist. 2006; 76(1):109-13. PMid:16448278

Ercan I, Ozdemir ST, Etoz A, Sigirli D, Tubbs RS, Loukas M, et al. Facial asymmetry in young healthy subjects evaluated by statistical shape analysis. J Anat. 2008; 213(6):663-9. PMid:19094182 PMCid:PMC2666135



How to Cite

Majeed MI, Haralur SB, Khan MF, Al Ahmari MA, Al Shahrani NF, Shaik S. An Anthropometric Study of Cranio-Facial Measurements and Their Correlation with Vertical Dimension of Occlusion among Saudi Arabian Subpopulations. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2018 Mar. 28 [cited 2021 May 9];6(4):680-6. Available from:



D - Dental Sciences