An Anthropometric Study of Cranio-Facial Measurements and Their Correlation with Vertical Dimension of Occlusion among Saudi Arabian Subpopulations


  • Muhammed Irfan Majeed Department of Prosthodontics, College of Dentistry, King Khalid University
  • Satheesh B. Haralur College of Dentistry, King Khalid University
  • Muhammed Farhan Khan Department of Prosthodontics, College of Dentistry, King Khalid University
  • Maram Awdah Al Ahmari Department of Prosthodontics, College of Dentistry, King Khalid University
  • Nourah Falah Al Shahrani Department of Prosthodontics, College of Dentistry, King Khalid University
  • Sharaz Shaik Department of Prosthodontics, College of Dentistry, King Khalid University



Anthropometric measurements, the Vertical dimension of occlusion, Cranio-facial measurements, Full mouth rehabilitation


BACKGROUND: Determining and restoring physiological vertical dimension of occlusion (VDO) is the critical step during complete mouth rehabilitation. The improper VDO compromises the aesthetics, phonetics and functional efficiency of the prosthesis.  Various methods are suggested to determine the accurate VDO, including the facial measurements in the clinical situations with no pre-extraction records. The generalisation of correlation between the facial measurements to VDO is criticised due to gender dimorphism and racial differences. Hence, it is prudent to verify the hypothesis of facial proportion and correlation of lower third of the face to remaining craniofacial measurements in different ethnic groups. The objective of the study was to evaluate the correlation of craniofacial measurements and OVD in the Saudi-Arabian ethnic group.

METHODOLOGY: Total of 228 participants from Saudi-Arabian Ethnic group were randomly recruited in this cross-sectional study. Fifteen craniofacial measurements were recorded with modified digital Vernier callipers, and OVD was recorded at centric occlusion. The obtained data were analysed by using the Spearman’s correlation and linear regression analysis.

RESULTS: The Mean OVD in male participants was higher (69.25 ± 5.54) in comparison to female participants (57.41 ± 5.32).  The craniofacial measurement of Exocanthion-right labial commissure and the Mesial wall of the right external auditory canal-orbitale lateral had a strong positive correlation with VDO. The strong correlation was recorded with a trichion-upper border of right eyebrow line and trichion-Nasion only in males. Meanwhile, the length of an auricle recorded the positive correlation in female participants.

CONCLUSIONS: Being simple and non-invasive technique, craniofacial measurements and linear equations could be routinely utilised to determine VDO.


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How to Cite

Majeed MI, Haralur SB, Khan MF, Al Ahmari MA, Al Shahrani NF, Shaik S. An Anthropometric Study of Cranio-Facial Measurements and Their Correlation with Vertical Dimension of Occlusion among Saudi Arabian Subpopulations. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2018 Mar. 28 [cited 2023 Feb. 4];6(4):680-6. Available from:



D - Dental Sciences