Anxiety, Stress and Coping Patterns in Children in Dental Settings

Authors

  • Nadica Pop-Jordanova Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Skopje
  • Olivera Sarakinova Faculty of Dentistry, European University, Skopje
  • Maja Pop-Stefanova-Trposka Faculty of Dentistry, European University, Skopje
  • Efka Zabokova-Bilbilova Department of Paediatric and Preventive Dentistry, Ss Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje, Faculty of Dentistry, Skopje http://orcid.org/0000-0002-8476-6251
  • Emilija Kostadinovska Faculty of Dentistry, European University, Skopje

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2018.184

Keywords:

Stress, Anxiety, Coping system, Children, Dentistry

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Fear of the dentist and dental treatment is a common problem. It can cause treatment difficulties for the practitioner, as well as severe consequences for the patient. As is known, the level of stress can be evaluated thought electrodermal activity, cortisol measure in saliva, or indirectly by psychometric tests.

AIM: The present study examined the psychological influence of dental interventions on the child as well as coping patterns used for stress diminution.

METHODS: We examined two matched groups of patients: a) children with orthodontic problems (anomalies in shape, position and function of dentomaxillofacial structures) (N = 31, mean age 10.3 ± 2.02) years; and b) children with ordinary dental problems (N = 31, mean age 10.3 ± 2.4 years). As psychometric instruments, we used: 45 items Sarason’s scale for anxiety, 20 items simple Stress - test adapted for children, as well as A - cope test for evaluation coping patterns.

RESULTS: Obtained scores confirmed the presence of moderate anxiety in both groups as well as moderate stress level. For Sarason’s test obtained scores for the group with dental problems are 20.63 ± 8.37 (from max 45); and for Stress test 7.63 ± 3.45 (from max 20); for the orthodontic group obtained scores are 18.66 ± 6.85 for Sarason’s test, while for the Stress test were 7.76 ± 3.78. One way ANOVA confirmed a significant difference in values of obtained scores related to the age and gender. Calculated Student t - test shows non-significant differences in obtained test results for both groups of examinees. Coping mechanisms evaluated by A - cope test shows that in both groups the most important patterns used for stress relief are: developing self-reliance and optimism; avoiding problems and engaging in demanding activity.

CONCLUSION: This study confirmed that moderate stress level and anxiety are present in both groups of patients (orthodontic and dental). Obtained scores are depending on gender and age. As more used coping patterns in both groups are developing self-reliance and optimism; avoiding problems and engaging in demanding activity. Some strategies for managing this problem are discussed.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Plum Analytics Artifact Widget Block

References

Basudan S, Binanzan N, Alhassan A. Depression, anxiety and stress in dental students. Int J Med Educ. 2017; 8:179-186. https://doi.org/10.5116/ijme.5910.b961 PMid:28553831 PMCid:PMC5457790

Carter AE, Carter G, Boschen M, AlShwaimi E, and George R. Pathways of fear and anxiety in dentistry: A review. World J Clin Cases. 2014; 2(11): 642-653. https://doi.org/10.12998/wjcc.v2.i11.642 PMid:25405187 PMCid:PMC4233415

Storjord HP, Teodorsen MM, Bergdahl J, Wynn R, and Kolset Johnsen JA. Dental anxiety: a comparison of students of dentistry, biology, and psychology. J Multidiscip Healthc. 2014; 7: 413-418. PMid:25285013 PMCid:PMC4181736

Pop-Jordanova N, Sarakinova O, Markovska-Simoska S, Loleska S. Anxiety and personality characteristics in children undergoing dental interventions. Contributions. MASA (Sec Med Sci), 2013; 34(3): 93-103.

Sarason IG. The test anxiety scale: concept and research. In Spielberg CD, Sarason IG, Stress and Anxiety (vol. 5) Washington DC, Hemisphere Publishing Co., 1978.

Spence SH, Barrett PM, Turner PM. Psychometric Properties of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale with Young Adolescents. J Anxiety Disord. 2003; 17(6):605-625. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0887-6185(02)00236-0

Stanton AL, Kirk SB, Cameron CL, & Danoff-Burg, S. Coping through emotional approach. Scale construction and validation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 2000; 78(6): 1150-1169. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.78.6.1150 PMid:10870915

Nelson TM, Huebner CE, Kim A, Scott JM, Pickrell JE. Parent-Reported Distress in Children Under 3-years Old During Preventive Medical and Dental Care. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent. 2015; 16(3): 283-290. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40368-014-0161-9 PMid:25514877 PMCid:PMC4470890

Cianetti S, Paglia L, Gatto R, Montedori A, Lupatelli E. Evidence of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions for the management of dental fear in paediatric dentistry: a systematic review protocol. BMJ Open. 2017; 7(8): e016043. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2017-016043 PMid:28821522 PMCid:PMC5629719

Hunter MJ, Griswold JD, Rosenberg M. Administration of methohexital for pediatric outpatient dentistry. Anesth Prog. 1990; 37(5): 248-251. PMid:2096749 PMCid:PMC2148599

Afshar H, Nakhjavani YB, Mahmoudi-Gharaei J, Mehrsa Paryab M, Zadhoosh S. The Effect of Parental Presence on the 5 year-Old Children's Anxiety and Cooperative Behavior in the First and Second Dental Visit. Iran J Pediatr. 2011; 21(2): 193-200. PMid:23056787 PMCid:PMC3446162

Paryab M, Zeinab Arab Z. The effect of Filmed modeling on the anxious and cooperative behavior of 4-6 years old children during dental treatment: A randomized clinical trial study. Dent Res J (Isfahan). 2014; 11(4): 502-507.

Pop-Jordanova N. Biofeedback application for somatoform disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, International Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences, 2009; 1(2): 17-22.

Pop-Jordanova N, Demerdzieva A. Biofeedback Training for Peak Performance in Sport - Case Report. Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences, 2010; 3(2): 113-118. https://doi.org/10.3889/MJMS.1857-5773.2010.0098

Published

2018-04-10

How to Cite

1.
Pop-Jordanova N, Sarakinova O, Pop-Stefanova-Trposka M, Zabokova-Bilbilova E, Kostadinovska E. Anxiety, Stress and Coping Patterns in Children in Dental Settings. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2018 Apr. 10 [cited 2023 Feb. 4];6(4):692-7. Available from: https://oamjms.eu/index.php/mjms/article/view/oamjms.2018.184

Issue

Section

D - Dental Sciences

Most read articles by the same author(s)