Lambdacism, Rhotacism and Sigmatism in Preschool Children: Frequency and Distribution


  • Tatjana Georgievska-Jancheska Center for Rehabilitation of Hearing, Speech and Voice, Faculty of Medicine, University Ss. Cyril and Methodius of Skopje, Skopje, Republic of Macedonia



Lambdacism, Rhotacism, Sigmatism, Articulation, Sounds, Speech, Articulation disorders


BACKGROUND: Speech sound appears first in the child’s speech development and is the primary means of expression. Articulation disorders can hinder the comprehensibility of children’s speech. The speech, in turn, can limit the child’s inclusion in the social and educational environment.

AIM: To establish frequency and distribution of lambdacism, rhotacism and sigmatism or their combination in preschool children and the frequency and distribution of these articulation disorders among boys and girls.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of data from preventive examination for early diagnosis of impairments of hearing, speech and sounds in preschool children has been carried out. In the selected sample, only the data for children diagnosed with lambdacism, rhotacism, sigmatism or their combination are analysed. The data is statistically examined, represented in tables and figures and analysed descriptively.

RESULTS: In the analysed sample, the greater presence of lambdacism was observed before rhotacism and sigmatism. Most commonly, these three types of articulation disorder appear alone, as isolated cases, instead of a combination of two out of the three impairments. They are more common in boys than in girls.

CONCLUSION: Timely diagnosis and rehabilitation of lambdacism, rhotacism and sigmatism or their combination in preschool children will enable easier and faster integration of the children in the social and educational environment without leaving lasting consequences


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How to Cite

Georgievska-Jancheska T. Lambdacism, Rhotacism and Sigmatism in Preschool Children: Frequency and Distribution. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2019 Feb. 9 [cited 2023 Sep. 26];7(3):336-40. Available from:



B - Clinical Sciences