Community’s Knowledge, Attitude and Practice toward Leptospirosis and its Prevention and Control: A Systematic Review


  • Mohd Rohaizat Hassan Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine, University Kebangsaan Malaysia, Cheras, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; Borneo Medical Health and Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia
  • Nor Rumaizah Mohd Nordin Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine, University Kebangsaan Malaysia, Cheras, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • Firdaus Hayati Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia
  • Nazarudin Safian Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine, University Kebangsaan Malaysia, Cheras, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • Hani Kartini Agustar Department of Earth Sciences and Environmental, Faculty of Science and Technology, UKM, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Siti Khairani Bejo Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Rahmat Dapari Department of Community Health, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Syed Sharizman Syed Abdul Rahim Department of Public Health Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia
  • Zahir Izuan Azhar Department of Public Health Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Sungai Buloh Campus, Sungai Buloh, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Mohammad Saffree Jeffree Department of Public Health Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia



Attitude, Leptospirosis, Knowledge, Practice, Prevention


BACKGROUND: Multiple studies have been conducted on the level of knowledge, attitude, and preventive practices (KAP) towards leptospirosis, descriptively, analytically pertaining to its relationship and also associated factors such as sociodemographic and economic factors. Over the years, different community settings and sampling frames were applied.

AIM: The goal of this review is to identify available literature evidence on the community's knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours about leptospirosis, taking into account variations and similarities in techniques, tools, and data analysis.

METHODS: A literature search was undertaken using the electronic databases PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Ovid. Open access articles produced between 2011 and 2021 were analysed, with an emphasis on community's KAP.

RESULTS: Eight articles met the inclusion benchmarks. The relationship between knowledge, attitude and preventive practices is not congruent. However, most studies showed that good knowledge is attributed to good attitude, but attitude does not necessarily contribute to good practice. Socio-demographic factors such as educational level, ethnicity, age, income and geographical location (distance to the river) have an influence on knowledge, attitude and practice.

CONCLUSION: More KAP studies with standardised methodology and questionnaires regarding leptospirosis are required in order to formulate effective, sustainable and replicable health program interventions to prevent the community from leptospirosis infection and fatality. In the future, more qualitative studies should be done to further investigate and combine with quantitative studies to form prediction modelling.


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How to Cite

Hassan MR, Mohd Nordin NR, Hayati F, Safian N, Agustar HK, Bejo SK, Dapari R, Rahim SSSA, Azhar ZI, Jeffree MS. Community’s Knowledge, Attitude and Practice toward Leptospirosis and its Prevention and Control: A Systematic Review. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2023 Jan. 22 [cited 2024 May 26];11(E):136-44. Available from:



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