Prevalence of Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections in Malaysia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors

  • Zulkefley Mohammad Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bandar Tun Razak, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • Ariff Azfarahim Ibrahim Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bandar Tun Razak, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • Muhammad Alimin Mat Reffien Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bandar Tun Razak, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • Mohd Rohaizat Hassan Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bandar Tun Razak, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4658-6532
  • Syed Sharizman Syed Abdul Rahim Departmemt of Public Health Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9090-2563
  • Mohammad Saffree Jeffree Departmemt of Public Health Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0373-4451
  • Zulkhairul Naim Bin Sidek Ahmad Departmemt of Public Health Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia; Departmemt of Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2024.11467

Keywords:

Malaysia, Infection, Helmint

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Prevention and control of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in Malaysia remain a challenge, especially among aborigine and rural population. Despite several community-based reports, there are lacking national data on the overall prevalence for STH infection.

AIM: The study aimed to determine the prevalence, endemic species, and distribution and risk zones (RZs) for STH infections in Malaysia through a systematic review and meta-analysis of the data published between 1999 and 2019.

METHODS: This study employed the recommendations of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. The databases used in this review include SCOPUS, WEB OF SCIENCE, OVID MEDLINE, and PUBMED. The random-effects model determined the pooled prevalence estimate (PPE) while Cochran’s Q-test evaluated the heterogeneity.

RESULTS: A total of 13240 samples were examined during the period under review with 6235 were infected with one or more species of STHs. The overall PPE for STH infections was 51% (95% Confidence interval [CI]: 34, 67). PPEs for sub-groups ranged between 13% (95% CI: 5, 22) and 69% (95% CI: 50, 87). Highest PPEs for STH infections were observed among aborigine children (69% 95% CI: 50, 87). Trichuris trichiura was the most prevalent species (46%, 95% CI: 27, 65). Over 46% (17/37) of the studies, especially among aborigine community and their area showed high-HRZ for STH infections.

CONCLUSION: STH infections involving T. trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworms and Strongyloides stercoralis are highly prevalent among aborigine community. Primary and secondary prevention such as the use of anthelmintic, health education, and adequate sanitation was essential in the control of these infections in Malaysia to improve individual and community health.

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Published

2024-01-28

How to Cite

1.
Mohammad Z, Ibrahim AA, Reffien MAM, Hassan MR, Rahim SSSA, Jeffree MS, Ahmad ZNBS. Prevalence of Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections in Malaysia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2024 Jan. 28 [cited 2024 Feb. 26];12(1):48-55. Available from: https://oamjms.eu/index.php/mjms/article/view/11467

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