Dietary exposure to aflatoxin B1 and ethanol from homemade and industrial fermented beverages in South Kivu, Democratic Republic of the Congo


  • Aladin Ombeni Mahano Department of Nutrition, High Institute of Public Health, Alexandria University, Egypt; Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Public Health, Université Officielle de Bukavu, D.R Congo
  • Neveen Fahmy Agamy Department of Nutrition, High Institute of Public Health, Alexandria University, Egypt
  • Doaa Tawfik Mohamed Department of Nutrition, High Institute of Public Health, Alexandria University, Egypt
  • Salma Adnan Bekhit Department of Environmental Health, High Institute of Public Health, Alexandria University, Egypt
  • Mahmoud Mohamed El Tawila Department of Nutrition, High Institute of Public Health, Alexandria University, Egypt



Aflatoxin B1, alcochol, exposure, Fermented beverage, South Kivu


BACKGROUND: The prevalence of AFB1 contamination in agricultural products used to produce fermented alcoholic beverages is increasing, raising concerns for human health.

AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate dietary exposure to AFB1 and ethanol through homemade and industrial fermented beverages commonly consumed in South Kivu, DR Congo.

METHOD: AFB1 and ethanol were measured using reverse-phase HPLC with a fluorescence detector and a refractive index detector, respectively. Data on fermented beverage consumption were collected from 847 adults using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ).

RESULTS: The findings revealed that industrial sample Man 8 had the highest exposure to AFB1 (77.8 ± 45.0 ng/kg b.w/day) and Man4 had the highest ethanol exposure (4.83 ± 2.40 mg/kg b.w/day); while among homemade samples, Kasiksi had the highest exposure to both AFB1 (8.8 ± 6.6 ng/kg b.w/day) and ethanol (2.46 ± 1.85 mg/kg b.w/day). The margin of exposure (MOE) for AFB1 was 1011.7 or less, and for ethanol, it was 818.2 or less. Men are more likely to be exposed.

CONCLUSION: Increased consumption of homemade and industrial fermented beverages raises the risk of developing hepatocellular cancer (HCC) because the levels of AFB1 and ethanol MOE drop below the safe limit of 10000. Further research is needed to investigate the connection between AFB1, ethanol, and HCC, especially in regions where alcohol misuse is common.


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Mahano AO, Agamy NF, Mohamed DT, Bekhit SA, El Tawila MM. Dietary exposure to aflatoxin B1 and ethanol from homemade and industrial fermented beverages in South Kivu, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2024 Jun. 15 [cited 2024 Jul. 24];12(2):183-91. Available from:



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