Exploring Disparities in Life Satisfaction among LGBTQ+ Older Adults in different Living Environments: The Case of Slovenia


  • Mihael Nedeljko Research Institute of Social Gerontology, Alma Mater Europaea – ECM, Maribor, Slovenia https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4484-8049
  • Barbara Toplak-Perović Research Institute of Social Gerontology, Alma Mater Europaea – ECM, Maribor, Slovenia
  • Miran Grah Department of International Economics and Business, University of Maribor, Faculty of Economics and Business, Maribor, Slovenia
  • Boris Miha-Kaučič Research Institute of Social Gerontology, Alma Mater Europaea – ECM, Maribor, Slovenia




LGBTQ older adults, life satisfaction, living environment, rural areas, urban areas


BACKGROUND: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ+) older adults are an overlooked minority of the population who face discrimination, stigma, and homo-, bi-, or transphobia. We have not found any research in the European area that examines differences in life satisfaction among LGBTQ+ older adults according to the living environment.

AIM: The aim of the research was to determine differences in life satisfaction according to different living environments (big cities, small cities, and rural areas) among LGBTQ+ older adults.

METHODS: We selected a non-random purposive sample size of 318 units of LGBTQ+ older adults for the quantitative survey. In the first phase, we used exploratory factor analysis. To ascertain the normality of data distribution, the Kolmogorov–Smirnov and Shapiro–Wilk tests were used. To test the hypothesis, we used a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with a post hoc analysis, with which we determined the existence of differences in the perception of life satisfaction according to the living environment.

RESULTS: We find statistically significant differences at p < 0.05, which occur in all items except the item. So far, I have gotten the important things I want in life (p = 0.150). Since there are statistically significant differences between the ratings of satisfaction with life according to the living environment, we confirm the hypothesis. With a post hoc analysis, we determined even more precise differences between the three living environments of the interviewed persons, regarding which we found that life satisfaction increases with the size of the place where they live.

DISCUSSION: As with studies from other countries, we also note that differences exist between rural and urban living environments for LGBTQ+ older adults in Slovenia in terms of life satisfaction. Further research is needed on the factors that account for these disparities among LGBTQ+ older adults.

CONCLUSION: LGBTQ+ older adults in urban settings report higher life satisfaction than those in rural areas, possibly due to factors like community support and acceptance. Further research is needed to understand the needs of LGBTQ+ older adults, especially in countries where they are hidden due to political or religious influences, to ensure optimal conditions for their life satisfaction in old age.


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Nedeljko M, Toplak-Perović B, Grah M, Miha-Kaučič B. Exploring Disparities in Life Satisfaction among LGBTQ+ Older Adults in different Living Environments: The Case of Slovenia. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2024 Mar. 20 [cited 2024 May 26];12:1-7. Available from: https://oamjms.eu/index.php/mjms/article/view/11870



Public Health Epidemiology