Risk Factors in Adult Myopia in Macedonia

Authors

  • Antonela Ljubic Private Polyclinic “Medika Plus,” Skopje, Republic of Macedonia https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4221-0124
  • Galina Dimitrova Department of Ophthalmology, City General Hospital “September 8,” Skopje, Republic of Macedonia; Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Dental Medicine, European University, Skopje, Republic of Macedonia https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3537-4363
  • Vladimir Trajkovski Institute of Special Education and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Philosophy, University “Ss. Cyril and Methodius” in Skopje, Skopje, Republic of Macedonia https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8369-9501
  • Branislav Stankovic Institute of Ophthalmology, University Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia; Department of Ocular Motility and Strabismus, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2803-0140
  • Ana Gjorgjievska Department of Ophthalmology, City General Hospital “September 8,” Skopje, Republic of Macedonia

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2024.11905

Keywords:

adult myopia, parental myopia, near tasks time, education level, outdoor activity

Abstract

AIM: In our case–control study of the Caucasian Macedonian myopia population of adults aged over 40 years, to analyze the environmental risk factors such as education level and outdoor activity levels in hours.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included 53 patients with myopia and 64 control subjects. The following demographic characteristics were evaluated using questionnaires: Age, gender, level of education, outdoor activities (hours), and parental myopia. Ophthalmic examination was performed with slit-lamp biomicroscopy and parameters: best corrected visual acuity, cycloplegic autorefraction, and corneal curvature radius were recorded.

RESULTS: About 54.7% of the myopia study population were male, and most of the subjects had high education (58.5%). About 43.4% of the myopia subjects did have parental myopia in the family history. The mean age of onset of myopia was 22.5 years, and the mean age when myopia stopped was 37.1 years. The mean value of near tasks (screen time, reading, etc.) time in hours, in the myopia group was 5.6, whereas in the emmetropia group 4.9. The mean value of outdoor activity in hours per day (prior 26 years of age, recent years, and today) was: 5.1 h, 4.2 h, 3.9 h in the myopia group versus 4.8 h, 3.8 h, 3.3 h in the emmetropia group, respectively.

CONCLUSION: The prevalence of male gender in myopia group was higher. Near task time in hours was higher in myopia group versus emmetropia group. Parental history of myopia was significantly more present in patients with myopia. Environmental risk factors such as outdoor activities in hours and level of education did not differ significantly among the groups.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Plum Analytics Artifact Widget Block

References

Pan CW, Klein BE, Cotch MF, Shrager S, Klein R, Folsom A, et al. Racial variations in the prevalence of refractive errors in the United Sates: The multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2013;155(6):1129-38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajo.2013.01.009 PMid:23453694 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajo.2013.01.009

Wolfram C, Hoehn R, Kottler U, Wild P. Prevalence of refractive errors in the European adult population: The Gutenberg health study (GHS). Br J Ophthalmol. 2014;98(7):857-61. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjophthalmol-2013-304228 PMid:24515986 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/bjophthalmol-2013-304228

Kempen JH, Mitchell P, Lee EK, Tielsch J. The prevalence of refractive errors among adults in the United States, Western Europe, and Australia. Arch Ophthalmol. 2014;98:857-61.

Anton A, Andrada MT, Mayo A, Portela J. Epidemiology of refractive errors in an adult European population: The Segovia study. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2009;16(4):231-7. https://doi.org/10.3109/09286580903000476 PMid:19874144 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09286580903000476

Wong TY, Foster PJ, Hee J, Ng TP, Tielsch JM, Chew SJ, et al. Prevalence and risk factors for refractive errors in adult Chinese in Singapore. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2000;41(9):2468-94. PMid:10937558

Saw SM, Chan JH, Wong WL, Shankar A, Sandar M, Aung T, et al. Prevalence and risk factors for refractive errors in Singapore Malay eye survey. Ophtalmology. 2008;115(10):1713-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2008.03.016 PMid:18486221 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2008.03.016

Pan CW, Wong TY, Lavanya R, Wu RY, Zheng YF, Lin XY, et al. Prevalence and risk factors for refractive errors in Indians: The Singapore Indian eye study (SINDI). Invest Ophtahlmol Vis Sci. 2011;52(6):3166-73. https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.10-6210 PMid:21296814 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.10-6210

Sawada A, Tomidokoro A, Araie M, Iwase A, Yamoto T, Tajimi Study Group. Refractive errors in an elderly Japanese population: The Tajimi study. Ophthalmology. 2008;115(2):363- 70.e3. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2007.03.075 PMid:18243904 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2007.03.075

Shimizu N, Nomma H, Ando F, Niito M, Miatake Y, Shimokata H. Refractive errors and factors associated with myopia in an adult Japanese population. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2003;47(1):6-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0021-5155(02)00620-2 PMid:12586171 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-5155(02)00620-2

Varma R, Torres M, McKean-Cowdin R, Rong F, Hsu C, Jiang X, et al. Prevalence and risk factors for refractive error in adult Chinese Americans: The Chinese American eye study. Am J Ophthalmol. 2017;175:201-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajo.2016.10.002 PMid:27769895 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajo.2016.10.002

Morgan IG, French AN, Ashby RS, Guo X, Ding X, He M, et al. The epidemics of myopia: Aetiology and prevention. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2018;62:134-49. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.preteyeres.2017.09.004 PMid:28951126 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.preteyeres.2017.09.004

Rose KA, Morgan IG, Smith W, Burlutsky G, Mitchell P, Saw SM. Myopia, lifestyle, and schooling in students of Chinese ethnicity in Singapore and Sydney. Arch Ophthalmol. 2008;126(4):527- 30. https://doi.org/10.1001/archopht.126.4.527 PMid:18413523 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1001/archopht.126.4.527

Ip MJ, Saw SM, Rose KA, Morgan IG, Kifley A, Wang JJ, et al. Role of near work in myopia: Findings in a sample of Australian school children. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008;49(7):2903-10. https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.07-0804 PMid:18579757 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.07-0804

He M, Xiang F, Zeng Y, Mai J, Chen Q, Zhang J, et al. Effect of time spent outdoors at school on the development of myopia among children in China. A randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2015;314(11):1142-8. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2015.10803 PMid:26372583 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2015.10803

Barry RJ, Wacogne I, Aboot J. Spending an additional 40 min outdoors each day reduces the incidence of myopia among primary school children in China. Arch Dis Child Educ Pract Ed. 2016;101(4):219. https://doi.org/10.1136/archdischild-2016-311102 PMid:27247295 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/archdischild-2016-311102

Morgan IG, Wu PC, Ostrin LA, Tideman JW, Yam JC, Lan W, et al. IMI risk factors for myopia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2021;62(5):3. https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.62.5.3 PMid:33909035 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.62.5.3

Attebo K, Ivers RQ, Mitchell P. Refractive errors in an older population: The blue mountains eye study. Ophthalmology. 1999;106(6):1066-72. https://doi.org/10.1016/ S0161-6420(99)90251-8 PMid:10366072 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0161-6420(99)90251-8

Mutti DO, Mitchell GL, Moeschberger MI, Jones LA, Zadnik K. Parental myopia, near work, school achievement, and children’s refractive error. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2002;43(12):3633-40. PMid:12454029

Edwards MH. Effect of parental myopia on the development of myopia in Hong Kong Chinese. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 1998;18(6):477-83. PMid:10070542 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0275-5408(98)00019-2

Ip JM, Huynh SC, Robaei D, Rose KA, Morgan IG, Smith W, et al. Ethnic differences in the impact of parental myopia: Findings from a population-based study of 12-year-old Australian children. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007;48(6):2520-8. https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.06-0716 PMid:17525179 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.06-0716

Jiang X, Tarcary-Hornoch K, Cotter SA, Matsumura S, Mitchell P, Rose KA, et al. Association of parental myopia with higher risk of myopia among multiethnic children before school age. JAMA Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2020;138(5):501-9. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2020.0412 PMid:32191277 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2020.0412

Huang HM, Chang DS, Win PC. The association between near work activities and myopia in children-a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2015;10(10):e0140419. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140419 PMid:26485393 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140419

French AN, Ashby RS, Morgan IG, Rose KA. Time outdoors and the prevention of myopia. Exp Eye Res. 2013;114:58-68. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exer.2013.04.018 PMid:23644222 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exer.2013.04.018

Kiong S, Sankarjdurg P, Naduvilath T, Zang J, Zou H, Zhu J, et al. Time spent in outdoor activities in relation to myopia prevention and control: A meta-analysis and systematic review. Acta Ophthalmol. 2017;95(6):551-66. https://doi.org/10.1111/aos.13403 PMid:28251836 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/aos.13403

Rose KA, Morgan IG, Ip BJ, Kifley A, Huynh S, Smith W, et al. Outdoor activity reduces the prevalence of myopia in children. Ophthalmology. 2008;115(8):1279-85. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2007.12.019 PMid:18294691 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2007.12.019

Additional Files

Published

2024-04-25

How to Cite

1.
Ljubic A, Dimitrova G, Trajkovski V, Stankovic B, Gjorgjievska A. Risk Factors in Adult Myopia in Macedonia. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2024 Apr. 25 [cited 2024 May 26];12:1-5. Available from: https://oamjms.eu/index.php/mjms/article/view/11905

Issue

Section

Ophtalmology

Categories