Empirical Study on Sick Building Syndrome from Indoor Pollution in Nigeria
Keywords:Air pollution, Indoor air quality, Sick building syndrome, Pollution, Maintenance
There are rising cases of building occupants with health-related challenges such as irritation, asthma, lung infections, headaches, and other allergies. These health conditions sometimes disappear once the occupants live such buildings which are referred to as sick building syndrome (SBS). With the high fatality rate associated with air pollution and Nigeria ranking 4th in the poorest air quality globally, the study assessed SBS from indoor pollution in residential and office spaces. The study utilized a cross-sectional survey research design and employed the use of an air quality detector to measure a 24-h mean measurement of air conditions within the study area. The study was carried out in Zaria, Kaduna State. Statistical tools such as graphs, mean score, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and correlation matrix were used to analyze the dataset. The study showed that the major symptoms associated with SBS from indoor pollution. The indoor conditions that may contribute to SBS in the residential and office spaces were mainly lighting conditions, headroom in the building, and position of windows. While the study reported that the presence of SBS from indoor pollution can lead to increased maintenance, dizziness, and depression/breakdown. The measurement of the indoor pollutants contributing to the SBS among residential and office space occupants showed that PM2.5 and PM10 were mostly above the average 24-h mean standard. The study suggested recommendations to improve indoor air quality and reduce syndromes associated with sick buildings.
Plum Analytics Artifact Widget Block
Jerome N. Application of Maslow’s hierarchy of need theory; impacts and implications on organizational culture, human resource and employee’s performance. Int J Bus Manage Invent. 2013;2(3):39-45. Available from: https://www.pdfs.semanticscholar.org/b0bc/ c8ca45193eaf700350a8ac2ddfc09a093be8.pdf. [Last accessed on 2019 Sep 21].
Evans GW, McCoy JM. When buildings don’t work: The role of architecture in human health. J Environ Psychol. 1998;18:85-94.
Afolabi A, Tunji-Olayeni P, Oyeyipo O, Ojelabi R. The socioeconomics of women inclusion in green construction. Constr Econ Build. 2017;17:70-89. Available from: https://www.epress. lib.uts.edu.au/journals/index.php/ajceb/article/view/5344/5858. [Last accessed on 2019 Sep 21]. https://doi.org/10.5130/ajceb. v17i1.5344
Tunji-Olayeni P, Afolabi A, Okpalamoka O. Survey dataset on occupational hazards on construction sites. Data Brief. 2018;18:1365-71. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect. com/science/article/pii/S2352340918303792. [Last accessed on 2019 Sep 21]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2018.04.028
Kukec A, Dovjak M. Prevention and control of sick building syndrome (SBS). Part 1: Identification of risk factors. Int J Sanit Eng Res. 2014;8:16-40. Available from: https:// www.journal.institut-isi.si/prevention-and-control-ofsick-building-syndrome-sbs-part-1-identification-of-riskfactors/?download=15467. [Last accessed on 2019 Sep 21]. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-17919-8_30
Sarafisa P, Sotiriadou K, Dallas D, Stavrakakis P, Chalaris M. Sick-building syndrome. J Environ Prot Ecol. 2010;11:515-22. Available from: https://www.researchgate. net/publication/262728404_sick-building_syndrome. [Last accessed on 2019 Sep 21].
Iyagba RA. The Menace of Sick Buildings: A challenge to all for its prevention and treatment. Akoka, Nigeria: University of Lagos Press; 2005. Available from: http://www.184.108.40.206/opendoc. php?sno=9130&doctype=pdf&docname=the-menace-of-sickbuildings:-a-challenge-to-all-for-its-prevention-and-treatment. [Last accessed on 2019 Sep 21].
Health Effects Institute. State of Global Air 2018. Special Report. Boston, MA: Health Effects Institute; 2018. Available from: https://www.stateofglobalair.org/sites/default/files/soga2018-report.pdf. [Last accessed on 2019 Sep 21].
Fotoula PB. The sick building syndrome (SBS). Health Sci J. 2011;5(2):72-3.
World Health Organization. WHO Guidelines for Indoor Air Quality: Selected Pollutants. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2010. Available from: http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_ file/0009/128169/e94535.pdf. [Last accessed on 2019 Sep 21].
Joshi SM. The sick building syndrome. Indian J Occup Environ Med. 2008;12(6):1-4. Available from: http://www.ijoem.com/ article.asp?issn=0019-5278;year=2008;volume=12;issue=2;s page=61;epage=64;aulast=joshi. [Last accessed on 2019 Sep 21]. https://doi.org/10.4103/0019-5278.43262
Gomzi M, Bobic J. Sick building syndrome: Do we live and work in unhealthy environment? Period Biol. 2009;111(1):79- 84. Available from: https://www.hrcak.srce.hr/file/56816. [Last accessed on 2019 Sep 21].
Zamani M, Jalaludin J, Shaharom N. Indoor air quality and prevalence of sick building syndrome among office workers in two different offices in Selangor. Am J Appl Sci. 2013;10(10):1040- 7. Available from: https://www.pdfs.semanticscholar. org/3304/34a5ad02f6ec7d060203c51c0ab439036b35.pdf. [Last accessed on 2019 Sep 21]. https://doi.org/10.3844/ ajassp.2013.1140.1147
World Health Organization. Indoor Air Pollutants: Exposure and Health Effects. EURO Reports and Studies. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1983.
Burge S, Hedge A, Wilson S, Bass JH, Robertson A. Sick building syndrome: A study of 4373 office workers. Ann Occup Hyg. 1987;31(4A):493-504. PMid:3439759
Bourbeau J, Brisson C, Allaire S. Prevalence of the sick building syndrome symptoms in office workers before and six months and three years after being exposed to a building with an improved ventilation system. Occup Environ Med. 1997;54(1):49-53. https://doi.org/10.1136/oem.54.1.49 PMid:9072034
Wang J, Li J, Zhao C. A Case of Sick Building Syndrome Caused by Incorrect Ventilation Design of the Tight Building. Proceedings of Indoor Air, 490-493; 2002. Available from: http:// www.irbnet.de/daten/iconda/cib7170.pdf. [Last accessed on 2019 Sep 21].
Atarodi Z, Karimyan K, Gupta VK, Abbasi M, Moradi M. Evaluation of indoor air quality and its symptoms in office building-a case study of Mashhad, Iran. Data Brief. 2018;20:74- 9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2018.07.051 PMid:30105278
World Health Organization. WHO Air Quality Guidelines for Particulate Matter, Ozone, Nitrogen Dioxide and Sulfur Dioxide. Global Update 2005. Summary of Risk Assessment; 2006. Available from: https://www.apps.who.int/iris/ bitstream/10665/69477/1/who_sde_phe_oeh_06.02_eng.pdf. [Last accessed on 2019 Sep 21].
Riediker M, Cascio WE, Griggs TR, Herbst MC, Bromberg PA. Particulate matter exposure in cars is associated with cardiovascular effects in healthy young men. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2004;169(8):934-40. https://doi.org/10.1164/ rccm.200310-1463oc PMid:14962820
Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Indoor Air Quality in Commercial and Institutional Buildings. Occupational Safety and Health Administration U.S. Department of Labor; 2011. Available from: https://www.osha.gov/publications/3430indoorair-quality-sm.pdf. [Last accessed on 2019 Sep 21]. https://doi. org/10.1201/9781315269603-43
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2020 Adedeji O. Afolabi, Akpa Arome, Faith T. Akinbo (Author)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
All rights reserved.