Heavy Metal Contributions on Human Skin Disease near Cement Plant: A Systematic Review
Keywords:heavy metal, skin disease, cement plant, industry
AIM: The aim of this systematic review was to investigate heavy metal roles at skin disease of humans in the cement industrial area.
METHODS: All research reporting a specific heavy metal, which could be increasing the risk of the disease, cause cement induced to skin. Fourteen selected articles from our inclusion criteria rated using eight quality-appraisal criteria derived from Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology checklist and following preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses methodology.
RESULTS: We performed a systematic review of published articles between 2009 and 2019 from ten case–control, two cohort, one ecological study, and one cross-sectional study showed the heterogeneity of the study design. The studies are focusing on the relationship between heavy metal and skin disease that appeared in cement plant areas such as dermatitis, skin cancer, eczema, and other allergies. Chromium, nickel, cobalt, zinc, cadmium, mercury may present and play an important role for human skin disease.
CONCLUSION: Heavy metals have been found in the skin of human living and work around the cement industry. Chromium, cobalt, and nickel are almost certainly present in every case of dermatitis and eczema. Signs and mild symptoms of skin disease include redness, itching, starch, and dryness. Elements such as cadmium, lead, and mercury usually are found in chronic skin disease (psoriasis and skin cancer) on a biologic test. These findings should raise an important concern and recommendation policy for controlling raw materials contains heavy metal in cement industrial areas and proper protection for workers and non-worker.
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