The Effect of Ethanol and Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Chayote fruit (Sechium edule Jacq. Swartz) on the Oxidative Stress and Insulin Resistance of Male White Rat Model Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus


  • Jekson Martiar Siahaan Doctoral Program, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia; Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia
  • Syaffruddin Illyas Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia
  • Dharma Lindarto Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia
  • Marline Nainggolan Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia



Type 2 DM, Insulin Resistance, Streptozotocin, Nicotinamide, High-fat diet (HFD)


BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) causes insulin resistance and disordered insulin secretion. Pathomechanisms of T2D consist of dysfunctional pancreatic β-cell and insulin resistance caused by free radical (reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species) that produced from the glucose metabolism pathway. Insulin resistance can be measured using the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Oxidative stress can measure through the activities of malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD).

AIM: This research aims to study the potential of chayote (Sechium edule Jacq. Swartz) to be used as antihyperglycemic in T2D.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: This research was conducted with a post-test randomized controlled group design. Eleven groups with four male rats each were used. Normal untreated rats were treated under ad libitum feeding and drinking condition. Meanwhile, the rat models were induced with the combination of 45 mg/kg b.w. streptozotocin, 110 mg/kg b.w. nicotinamide, 40.5 mg/kg b.w. metformin, high-fat diet, and/or chayote extract. The chayote extract was orally administered to the rat in the form of ethanol extract and/or ethyl acetate fraction, with three dosages of 45 mg/kg b.w., 100 mg/kg b.w., and 150 mg/kg b.w. for each extract type. The body weight, glucose level, insulin level, MDA, and SOD activities were measured. The HOMA-IR was used.

RESULTS: The lowest body weight of the rat model in week 0 was 145 ± 25.31, founded in Group H that was treated with ethyl acetate fraction of chayote extract (45 mg/kg b.w.). The lowest blood sugar level in the group with 2 h glucose load was 112.5 ± 27.00 on average, found in Group G that was treated with chayote ethanolic extract (150 mg/kg b.w.). The highest SOD in the group treated with chayote extract was 1.27 ± 0.20, founded in Group H treated with ethyl acetate 45 mg/kg b.w. The lowest level of MDA was 0.86 ± 0.70 in Group H treated with ethyl acetate 45 mg/kg b.w. The lowest fasting blood sugar spectrophotometer level was 150.54 ± 17.24 mg/dl in Group K with metformin treatment, followed by 155.16 ± 31.92 mg/dl in Group K treated 45 mg/kg b.w. ethanol treatment. The highest insulin level was 6.14 ± 0.71, founded in Group F that was treated with chayote ethanolic extract 100 mg/kg b.w. The lowest measurement of HOMA-IR was 0.16 ± 0.80 in Group E treated with ethanol extract of chayote 45 mg/kg b.w.

CONCLUSION: Ethanol extract and fractionation of chayote work as an antioxidant and anti-insulin resistance.


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How to Cite

Siahaan JM, Illyas S, Lindarto D, Nainggolan M. The Effect of Ethanol and Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Chayote fruit (Sechium edule Jacq. Swartz) on the Oxidative Stress and Insulin Resistance of Male White Rat Model Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2020 Dec. 15 [cited 2022 Dec. 7];8(A):962-9. Available from:

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