The Effect of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) Flowers Extract on the Apoptosis of Fibroblast Proliferation in Keloids


  • Imam Budi Putra Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Indonesia
  • Hardyanto Soebono Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Gajah Mada, Indonesia
  • Sumadio Hadisahputra Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Indonesia
  • Adang Bachtiar Department of Health Policy and Administration, Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Indonesia, Indonesia



Fibroblast, Keloid, Roselle, Hibiscus sabdariffa L.


BACKGROUND: Keloid is a benign fibroproliferative dermal disorder as a result of dysregulation wound healing process in susceptible individuals. The pathogenesis is not clearly known yet, but upregulation of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) was found to have a significant role in inducing hyperproliferation of fibroblast cells. Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) flower extract has been found to have high content of polyphenols. Some studies have shown inhibition effect of H. sabdariffa polyphenols extract on TGF-β1, and as result affects fibroblast proliferation. Therefore, roselle flower extract might have a significant role in the prevention of keloid formation.

AIM: The objective of the study was to determine the effect of roselle flower extract on fibroblast cells proliferation in human keloid.

METHODS: An experimental controlled trial of 10 different concentrations (1.96 μg/ml, 3.91 μg/ml, 7.81 μg/ml, 15.63 μg/ml, 31.25 μg/ml, 62.50 μg/ml, 125 μg/ml, 250 μg/ml, 500 μg/ml, and 1000 μg/ml) of roselle (H. sabdariffa L.) flower extract was done on cultured fibroblast cells originated from human keloid biopsied tissue. Tunnel assay was done to evaluate the apoptosis rate of the cultured fibroblast cells on each concentration. Determination of TGF-β1 titer of the cultured human keloid fibroblast cells in and cytotoxicity assay of the extract on cultured normal human fibroblast cells in each concentration were done with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. All the assays were done in triple repetition. Statistical analysis using linear regression test was done to determine the association between the concentration of roselle flower extract with apoptosis rate and TGF-β1 titer. One-way ANOVA was used to analyze the results of cytotoxicity assay.

RESULTS: Apoptosis rate of the cultured fibroblast cells was found to be increased dose dependently with roselle flower extract concentration (r2 = 0.797; p < 0.05). TGF-β1 titer was inversely related with the extract concentration (r2 = 0.501; p < 0.05). Cytotoxicity assay revealed that no differences in absorbance value and viability cells were found in each concentration.

CONCLUSION: Roselle (H. sabdariffa L.) flower extract was found to induce apoptosis of the cultured fibroblast cells and reduction of TGF-β1 titer in dose-dependent pattern, without cytotoxicity effect against human fibroblast cells.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...

Plum Analytics Artifact Widget Block


Dunsky K, Brissett A. Keloids and hypertrophic scars. In: Sataloff RT, editor. Sataloff’s Comprehensive Textbook of Otolaryngology: Head and Neck Surgery: Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. London: JP Medical Ltd.; 2015.

Kouwenberg CA, Bijlard E, Timman R, Hovius SE, Busschbach JJ, Mureau MA. Emotional quality of life is severely affected by keloid disease: Pain and itch are the main determinants of burden. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2015;136(4):150-1. https://doi. org/10.1097/01.prs.0000472474.17120.84

Betarbet U, Blalock TW. Keloid: A review of etiology, prevention, and treatment. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2020;13(2):33-43. PMid:32308783

Chang YC, Huang HP, Hsu JD, Yang SF, Wang CJ. Hibiscus anthocyanins rich extract-induced apoptotic cell death in human promyelocytic leukemia cell. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2005;205(3):201-12. PMid:15922006

Huang CN, Chan KC, Lin WT, Su SL, Wang CJ, Peng CH. Hibiscus sabdariffa inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration induced by high glucose-A mechanism involves connective tissue growth factor signals. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:3073-79. jf803911n PMid:19301817

Shih B, Garside E, McGrouther DA, Bayat A. Molecular dissection of abnormal wound healing processes resulting in keloid disease. Wound Repair Regen. 2010;18(2):139-53. PMid:20002895

Gauglitz GG, Korting HC, Pavicic T, Ruzicka T, Jeschke MG. Hypertrophic scarring and keloids: Pathomechanisms and current and emerging treatment strategies. Mol Med. 2011;17:113-25. PMid:20927486

Wang LS, Stoner GD. Anthocyanins and their role in cancer prevention. Cancer Lett. 2008;269(2):281-90. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.canlet.2008.05.020 PMid:18571839

Lin BW, Gong CC, Song HF, Cui YY. Effects of anthocyanins on the prevention and treatment of cancer. Br J Pharmacol. 2017;174:1226-43. PMid:27646173

Liu Y, Li Y, Li N, Teng W, Wang M, Zhang T, et al. TGF-β1 promotes scar fibroblasts proliferation and transdifferentiation via up-regulating MicroRNA-21. Sci Rep. 2016;6(1):32231.

Kim SY, Nam SM, Park ES, Kim YB. Differences in hypertrophic scar fibroblasts according to scar severity: Expression of transforming growth factor β1 at the mRNA and protein levels. Arch Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2015;21(3):116-20. https://doi. org/10.14730/aaps.2015.21.3.116

Wang X, Gao Z, Wu X, Zhang W, Zhou G, Liu W. Inhibitory effect of TGF-β peptide antagonist on the fibrotic phenotype of human hypertrophic scar fibroblasts. Pharm Biol. 2016;54(7):1189-97. PMid:26135051

Lu L, Saulis AS, Liu WR, Roy NK, Chao JD, Ledbetter S, et al. The temporal effects of anti-TGF-β1, 2, and 3 monoclonal antibody on wound healing and hypertrophic scar formation. J Am Coll Surg. 2005;201:391-7. PMid:16125072.

Yang YS, Wang CJ, Huang CN, Chen ML, Chen MJ, Peng CH. Polyphenols of Hibiscus sabdariffa improved diabetic nephropathy via attenuating renal epithelial mesenchymal transition. J Agric Food Chem. 2013;61(31):7545-51. https://doi. org/10.1021/jf4020735




How to Cite

Putra IB, Soebono H, Hadisahputra S, Bachtiar A. The Effect of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) Flowers Extract on the Apoptosis of Fibroblast Proliferation in Keloids. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2020 Sep. 20 [cited 2024 Jul. 21];8(A):611-4. Available from:

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 > >>