Moringa oleifera Intake during Pregnancy and Breastfeeding toward Docosahexaenoic Acid and Arachidonic Acid Levels in Breast Milk


  • Karmila Sari Department of Nutrition, Public Health Faculty, Universitas Hasanuddin, Makassar, Indonesia
  • Saifuddin Sirajuddin Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Universitas Hasanuddin, Makassar, Indonesia
  • Martira Maddepungeng Department of Child, Wahidin Sudirohusodo Hospital, Makassar, Indonesia
  • Veni Hadju Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Universitas Hasanuddin, Makassar, Indonesia
  • Ariyanti Saleh Department of Nursing, Nursing Faculty, Universitas Hasanuddin, Makassar, Indonesia
  • Ikeu Tanziha Department of Community Nutrition, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Bogor, Indonesia
  • Hastuti Hastuti Department of Nursing, Anging Mammiri Nursing College, Makassar, Indonesia



Moringa oleifera, Pregnant Mothers and Breastfeeding Mothers, DHA Levels in Breast Milk, AA Levels in Breast Milk


BACKGROUND: Moringa oleifera is a nutritional food supplement that can save lives, particularly in countries with malnourished community. Such supplement can also be provided to breastfeeding mothers so that they can produce more breast milk.

AIM: This study investigated the effect of M. oleifera on pregnant and breastfeeding mothers on their breast milk’s docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) concentration.

METHODS: This was a longitudinal study which was the continuity from the previous experimental study. The research sample was 64 breastfeeding mothers given Moringa leaves powder (MLP), Moringa leaves extract (MLE), or iron-folic acid (IFA). The data were analyzed using Kruskal–Wallis test with the significance level of 95% aiming to assess the difference between the breast milk’s DHA and AA level on MLP, MLE, and IFA groups.

RESULTS: This research indicated that most mothers had low education level (71.9 %) and did not work (89.1%). There was no significant difference between the DHA level (p = 0.215) and AA (p = 0.914) of the breast milk among the MLP, MLE, and IFA groups.

CONCLUSION: The intervention might contribute a little effect on DHA and AA level in the breast milk.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...

Plum Analytics Artifact Widget Block


Antonakou A, Skenderi KP, Chiou A, Anastasiou CA, Bakoula C, Matalas AL. Breast milk fat concentration and fatty acid pattern during the first six months in exclusively breastfeeding Greek women. Eur J Nutr. 2013;52(2):963-73. s00394-012-0403-8 PMid:22752261

Ribeiro M, Balcao V, Guimaraes H, Rocha G, Moutinho C, Matos C, et al. Fatty acid profile of human milk of portuguese lactating women: Prospective study from the 1st to the 16th week of lactation. Ann Nutr Metab. 2008;53(1):50-6. https://doi. org/10.1159/000156597 PMid:18802330

Keim SA, Nancy D, Peter CS. Breastfeeding and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid intake in the first 4 post-natal months and infant cognitive development: An observational study. Matern Child Nutr. 2012;8(4):471-82. https://doi. org/10.1111/j.1740-8709.2011.00326.x PMid:21615865

Hadju V. Infant nutritional status of 0-6 months of exclusive breastfeed due to the application of Moringa leaf extract in breastfeeding mothers Health Notions. 2018;2(6):669-74.

Nadimin N. Pengaruh Pemberian Ekstrak Daun Kelor Terhadap Pencegahan Anemia, Kerusakan DNA Oksidatif Pada Ibu Hamil Dan Berat Badan Lahir.. Makassar: Program Pascasarjana Universitas Hasanuddin; 2015.

Stadtlander T, Becker K. Proximate composition, amino and fatty acid profiles and element compositions of four different Moringa species. J Agric Sci. 2017;9(7):46. v9n7p46

Alrawashdeh NQ, Alrawashdeh IM, Alzghoul TM. Amino acids and mineral composition analysis of Moringa peregrina forssk (fiori) in Jordan. ARPN J Agric Biol Sci. 2016;11(5):175-9.

Taup MA. Moringa oleifera. Philipp J Pediatr. 2000;49(1):3-6.

Chukwuebuka E. Moringa oleifera the mother’s best friend. Int J Nutr Food Sci. 2015;4(6):624. ijnfs.20150406.14

Sulistiawati Y, Suwondo A, Hardjanti TS, Soejoenoes A, Anwar MC, Susiloretni KA. Effect of Moringa oleifera on level of prolactin and breast milk production in postpartum mothers. Belitung Nurs J. 2017;3(2):126-33. bnj.75

Busani M, Patrick JM, Arnold H, Voster M. Nutritional characterization of Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) leaves. Afr J Biotechnol. 2011;10(60):12925-33. ajb10.1599

Saini RK, Shetty NP, Giridhar P. GC-FID/MS analysis of fatty acids in Indian cultivars of Moringa oleifera: Potential sources of PUFA. J Am Oil Chem Soc. 2014;91(6):1029-34. https://doi. org/10.1007/s11746-014-2439-9

Saini RK, Keum YS. Omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids: Dietary sources, metabolism, and significance-a review. Life Sci. 2018;203:255-67. lfs.2018.04.049 PMid:29715470

Andersen KR, Harslof LB, Schnurr TM, Hansen T, Hellgren LI, Michaelsen KF, et al. A study of associations between early DHA status and fatty acid desaturase (FADS) SNP and developmental outcomes in children of obese mothers. Br J Nutr. 2017;117(2):278- 86. PMid:28162103

Thompson BJ, Smith S. Biosynthesis of fatty acids by lactating human breast epithelial cells: An evaluation of the contribution to the overall composition of human milk fat. Pediatr Res. 1985;19(1):139-43. https://doi. org/10.1203/00006450-198501000-00036 PMid:3969307

Hachey DL, Thomas MR, Emken EA, Garza C, Brown- Booth L, Adlof RO, et al. Human lactation: Maternal transfer of dietary triglycerides labeled with stable isotopes. J Lipid Res. 1987;28(10):1185-92. PMid:3681142

van Goor SA, Dijck-Brouwer DA, Hadders-Algra M, Doornbos B, Erwich JJ, Schaafsma A, et al. Human milk arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid contents increase following supplementation during pregnancy and lactation. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2009;80(1):65-9. PMid:19118992

Dunstan JA, Mitoulas LR, Dixon G, Doherty DA, Hartmann PE, Simmer K, et al. The effects of fish oil supplementation in pregnancy on breast milk fatty acid composition over the course of lactation: A randomized controlled trial. Pediatr Res. 2007;62(6):689-94. pdr.0b013e318159a93a PMid:17957152

Jensen CL, Maude M, Anderson RE, Heird WC. Effect of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation of lactating women on the fatty acid composition of breast milk lipids and maternal and infant plasma phospholipids. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;71(1):292-9. PMid:10617985

Urwin HJ, Miles EA, Noakes PS, Kremmyda LS, Vlachava M, Diaper ND, et al. Salmon consumption during pregnancy alters fatty acid composition and secretory IgA concentration in human breast milk. J Nutr. 2012;142(8):1603-10. https://doi. org/10.3945/jn.112.160804 PMid:22739373

Smit EN, Koopmann M, Boersma ER, Muskiet FA. Effect of supplementation of arachidonic acid (AA) or a combination of AA plus docosahexaenoic acid on breastmilk fatty acid composition. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2000;62(6):335-40. PMid:10913225

Brenna JT, Diau GY. The influence of dietary docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid on central nervous system polyunsaturated fatty acid composition. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2007;77(5-6):247-50. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.plefa.2007.10.016 PMid:18023566

Stam J, Sauer PJ, Boehm G. Can we define an infant’s need from the composition of human milk? Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;98(2):521S-8. PMid:23842459

Nurdin MS, Imam A, Thahir A, Hadju V. Supplementations on pregnant women and the potential of Moringa oleifera supplement to prevent adverse pregnancy outcome. Int J Sci Healthc Res. 2018;3(1):71-5.

Olaofe OI, Adeyeye E, Ojugbo S. Comparative study of proximate amino acids and fatty acids of Moringa oleifera tree. Elixir Appl Chem. 2013;54:12543-54.




How to Cite

Sari K, Sirajuddin S, Maddepungeng M, Hadju V, Saleh A, Tanziha I, Hastuti H. Moringa oleifera Intake during Pregnancy and Breastfeeding toward Docosahexaenoic Acid and Arachidonic Acid Levels in Breast Milk. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2020 Jun. 15 [cited 2022 Oct. 1];8(B):757-61. Available from:

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 > >>