Aflatoxins Contamination of Human Food Commodities Collected from Jeddah Markets, Saudi Arabia


  • Mahmoud El Tawila Department of Environmental Science, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
  • Serdar Sadeq Ministry of Health Saudi Arabia, Public Health Ministry of Health, Health Programs and Chronic Disease, Saudi Arabia
  • Alrasheedi Amani Awad Department of Food Nutrition, Faculty of Home Economics, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
  • Jamil Serdar Ministry of Health Saudi Arabia, Alzahir Primary Health Care Centre, Saudi Arabia
  • Mohamed Hussein Fahmy Madkour Faculty of Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
  • Mohamed M. Deabes Department of Food Toxicology and Contaminants, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, Egypt



Human food commodities, Aflatoxins, HPLC, Nuts, Cereal


BACKGROUND: Aflatoxins (AFs) are fungal secondary metabolites produced by Aspergillus flavus. They contaminate of dietary food with AFs is a worldwide problem that affects both food safety and agricultural economies.

AIM: The aim of this study was designed to investigate the AFs contents of human food commodities mostly consumed in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

METHODS: The study was designed in vitro, contents in six food categories. A total of 288 samples were collected from 78 different markets in Jeddah. AFs were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector using immunoaffinity column clean-up.

RESULTS: The results indicated that the incidence rate 27.3% of nut samples collected from Jeddah, were contaminated with AFB1, AFB2. The concentrations of AFs (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, and AFG2) were ranged from 0.19–482.4, 0.09–3.34, 0.19–87.1, to 0.09–579 μg/kg in the nut samples.

CONCLUSION: The results demonstrate the importance of routine monitoring of AFs contamination in various dry foods for human consumed should be performed regularly and the nuts contained high levels of AFs. The legal regulations must be unauthorized for human consumption to control the health risks associated with AFs.


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How to Cite

El Tawila M, Sadeq S, Awad AA, Serdar J, Madkour MHF, Deabes MM. Aflatoxins Contamination of Human Food Commodities Collected from Jeddah Markets, Saudi Arabia. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2020 Apr. 15 [cited 2022 May 21];8(E):117-26. Available from:



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