Effect of Different Formulations and Application Methods of Coral Calcium on its Remineralization Ability on Carious Enamel
Keywords:Hydroxyapatite, coral calcium, remineralization, carious enamel
BACKGROUND: Coral calcium is a new biomimetic product and dietary supplement which consists mainly of alkaline calcium carbonate.
AIM: The aim of the current study is to compare the remineralization effect of coral calcium in different formulations and application methods.
METHODS: A total of 35 extracted molars was collected, examined, and sectioned to obtain 70 sound enamel discs, all specimens were examined for calcium mineral content using energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX) coupled with scanning electron microscope. Hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles were synthesized through wet chemical precipitation approach and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis. Teeth specimens were subjected to demineralization, and mineral content was measured, specimens were divided into ten groups according to the remineralizing agent used, where Groups 1–3 used 10, 20, and 30 weight % (wt.%) coral calcium gel, respectively, Groups 4–6 used 10, 20, and 30 wt.% coral calcium and nanohydroxyapatite mix gel, and Groups 7–9 used 10, 20, and 30 wt.% coral calcium with argon laser activation and Group 10 (control group) without a remineralizing agent. All groups were re-examined by EDAX after remineralization.
RESULTS: The TEM and FT-IR analysis confirmed the formation of rod shape HA in nanoparticles size range. All groups showed a statistically significant decrease in calcium level after demineralization, all groups showed a statistically significant increase in calcium content after remineralization except for the control group. Moreover, Groups 2 and 8 showed the highest increase in calcium level after remineralization.
CONCLUSION: Coral calcium showed a significant remineralizing effect on carious enamel (demineralization) with an optimum concentration of 20 wt.%.
Plum Analytics Artifact Widget Block
Farooq I, Ali S, Siddiqui IA, Al-Khalifa KS, Al-Hariri M. Influence of thymoquinone exposure on the micro-hardness of dental enamel: An in vitro study. Eur J Dent. 2019;13(3):318-22. PMid:31618784
Ali S, Farooq I. A review of the role of amelogenin protein in enamel formation and novel experimental techniques to study its function. Protein Pept Lett. 2019;26(12):880-6. PMid:31364509
Alfaroukh R, Elembaby A, Almas K, Ali S, Farooq I, Bahammam M, et al. Oral Biofilm formation and retention on commonly used dental materials: An update. Odonto-Stomatol Trop. 2018;41(164):29-34.
Farooq I, Bugshan A. The role of salivary contents and modern technologies in the remineralization of dental enamel: A review. F1000Res. 2020;9:171. PMid:32201577
Ali S, Farooq I, Al-Thobity AM, Al-Khalifa KS, Alhooshani K, Sauro S. An in-vitro evaluation of fluoride content and enamel remineralization potential of two toothpastes containing different bioactive glasses. Biomed Mater Eng. 2020;30(5-6):487-96. PMid:31594192
Margolis HC, Moreno EC. Kinetics of hydroxyapatite dissolution in acetic, lactic, and phosphoric acid solutions. Calcif Tissue Int. 1992;50(2):137-43. PMid:1315186
Pearce EIF, Moore AJ. Remineralization of softened bovine enamel following treatment of overlying plaque with a mineral-enriching solution. J Dent Res. 1985;64(3):416-21. PMid:3855891
Kielbassa AM, Muller J, Gernhardt CR. Closing the gap between oral hygiene and minimally invasive dentistry: A review of the resin infiltration technique of incipient (proximal) enamel lesions. Br Dent J. 2009;207(9):425.
Wang J, Layrolle P, Stigter M, De Groot K. Biomimetic and electrolytic calcium phosphate coatings on titanium alloy: Physicochemical characteristics and cell attachment. Biomaterials. 2004;25(4):583-92. PMid:14607496
Okazaki M, Takahashi J, Kimura H. Crystallinity patterns of fluoridated hydroxyapatites before and after incubation in acidic buffer solution. Caries Res. 1984;18(6):499-504. PMid:6593121
Featherstone JD. Remineralization, the natural caries repair process--the need for new approaches. Adv Dent Res. 2009;21:4-7.
Vandiver J, Dean D, Patel N, Bonfield W, Ortiz C. Nanoscale variation in surface charge of synthetic hydroxyapatite detected by chemically and spatially specific high-resolution force spectroscopy. Biomaterials. 2005;26(3):271-83. PMid:15262469
Zaki DY, Zaazou MH, Khallaf ME, Hamdy TM. In vivo comparative evaluation of periapical healing in response to a calcium silicate and calcium hydroxide based endodontic sealers. Open Access Maced J Med Sci. 2018;6(8):1-5. PMid:30159080
Hamdy TM, Mousa SM, Sherief MA. Effect of incorporation of lanthanum and cerium-doped hydroxyapatite on acrylic bone cement produced from phosphogypsum waste. Egypt J Chem. 2019;63:22-23.
Hamdy TM, Saniour SH, Sherief MA, Zaki DY. Effect of incorporation of 20 wt% amorphous nano-hydroxyapatite fillers in poly methyl methacrylate composite on the compressive strength. Res J Pharm Biol Chem Sci. 2015;6(3):975-8585.
Hamdy TM, El-Korashy SA. Novel bioactive zinc phosphate dental cement with low irritation and enhanced microhardness. e-J Surf Sci Nanotechnol. 2018;16:431-5.
Huang SB, Gao SS, Yu HY. Effect of nano-hydroxyapatite concentration on remineralization of initial enamel lesion in vitro. Biomed Mater. 2009;4(3):034104. PMid:19498220
Kim MY, Kwon HK, Choi CH, Kim BI. Combined effects of nano-hydroxyapatite and NaF on remineralization of early caries lesion. Key Eng Mater. 2007;330-332:1347-50.
Hamdy TM. Polymers and ceramics biomaterials in orthopedics and dentistry: A review article. Egypt J Chem. 2018;61(1):723-30.
Orsini G, Procaccini M, Manzoli L, Giuliodori F, Lorenzini A, Putignano A. A double-blind randomized-controlled trial comparing the desensitizing efficacy of a new dentifrice containing carbonate/hydroxyapatite nanocrystals and a sodium fluoride/potassium nitrate dentifrice. J Clin Periodontol. 2010;37(6):510-7. PMid:20507374
Yamagishi K, Onuma K, Suzuki T, Okada F, Tagami J, Otsuki M, et al. Materials chemistry: A synthetic enamel for rapid tooth repair. Nature. 2005;433(7028):819. PMid:15729330
Rodríguez-Lugo V, Karthik TV, Mendoza-Anaya D, Rubio- Rosas E, Cerón LS, Reyes-Valderrama MI, et al. Wet chemical synthesis of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite flakes: Effect of pH and sintering temperature on structural and morphological properties. R Soc Open Sci. 2018;5(8):180962. PMid:30225084
Jones EM, Cochrane CA, Percival SL. The effect of pH on the extracellular matrix and biofilms. Adv Wound Care. 2015;4(7):431-9. PMid:26155386
Brockmann D, Janse M. Calcium and carbonate in closed marine aquarium systems. In: Advances in Coral Husbandry in Public Aquariums. Netherlands: Burgers’ Zoo; 2008. p. 133-42. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/ publication/228361538_Calcium_and_carbonate_in_closed_marine_aquarium_systems. [Last accessed on 2020 Mar 25].
Pretty IA, Ingram GS, Agalamanyi EA, Edgar WM, Higham SM. The use of fluorescein-enhanced quantitative light-induced fluorescence to monitor de and re-mineralization of in vitro root caries. J Oral Rehabil. 2003;30(12):1151-6. PMid:14641655
Kumar VM, Govind GK, Siva B, Marish P, Ashwin S, Kiran M. Corals as bone substitutes. J Int Oral Health. 2016;8(1):96-102.
Ali Abdelnabi NK, Othman MS. Evaluation of re-mineralization of initial enamel lesions using nanohydroxyapatite and coral calcium with different concentrations. Egypt Dent J. 2019;65(2):3713-8.
Huang S, Gao S, Cheng L, Yu H. Combined effects of nano-hydroxyapatite and Galla chinensis on remineralisation of initial enamel lesion in vitro. J Dent. 2010;38(10):811-9. PMid:20619311
Sonali Sharma LC, N. Hegde M, Sadananda V, Matthews B. Evaluation of efficacy of different surface treatment protocols by laser fluorescence: An in vitro study. Dent Oral Craniofacial Res. 2017;3(4):1-5.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2020 Ali Abdelnabi, Mermen Kamal Hamza, Ola M. El-Borady, Tamer M. Hamdy (Author)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
All rights reserved.