The Effect of Neem (Azadirachta indica) Leaf Extracts on Interleukin-10 Expression and Histological Score in Dextran Sodium Sulfate-induced Colitis Mice


  • Riska Habriel Ruslie Department of Child Health, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Prima Indonesia, Medan, North Sumatera, Indonesia
  • Darmadi Darmadi Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Haji Adam Malik General Hospital, Medan, North Sumatera, Indonesia
  • Gontar Alamsyah Siregar Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Haji Adam Malik General Hospital, Medan, North Sumatera, Indonesia



Azadirachta indica, Colitis, Histological score, Interleukin-10, Neem


BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic or relapsing inflammation of the intestine which consists of Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Interleukin (IL)-10 is an anti-inflammatory cytokine which plays important role in the pathogenesis of IBD. Neem (Azadirachta indica) is rich of azadiractoids which possesses anti-inflammatory activity.

AIM: The objective of the study was to determine the effect of neem leaf extract on IL-10 expression and histological score in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis rats.

METHODS: The first phase compared 7 DSS-induced colitis rats (case group) with seven healthy rats (control group). All of them were sacrificed. The second phase compared 28 DSS-induced colitis rats treated with mesalazine (Group I) and 56 rats treated with neem leaf extract (Groups II and III). Seven rats from each group were sacrificed on days 7, 14, 21, and 28. Colon samples were harvested and underwent histopathological examination and immunohistochemical analysis to determine IL-10 expression and histological score.

RESULTS: IL-10 expression and histological score were higher in case group compared to control group. There was similar IL-10 expression between Groups I and II on day 28 while the similarity was observed since day 7 between Groups I and III. Mean histological score was higher in Group II compared to Group I and it was similar between Group I and Group III on days 21 and 28.

CONCLUSION: Neem leaf extract increased the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine, in particular IL-10, and improved histological score in DSS-induced colitis rats.


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How to Cite

Ruslie RH, Darmadi D, Siregar GA. The Effect of Neem (Azadirachta indica) Leaf Extracts on Interleukin-10 Expression and Histological Score in Dextran Sodium Sulfate-induced Colitis Mice. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2020 Jul. 20 [cited 2022 Jul. 1];8(A):578-82. Available from:

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