Musculoskeletal Pain and Work-related Risk Factors among Waste Collectors in Hanoi, Vietnam: A Cross-sectional Study


  • Bang Van Nguyen Department of Haematology, Toxicology, Radiation and Occupational Diseases, Military Hospital 103, Vietnam Military Medical University, Hanoi, Vietnam
  • Thuy Thi Thu Tran Department of Occupational Health and Safety, Hanoi University of Public Health, Hanoi, Vietnam
  • Ngan Thi Hoang Department of Sales, Daiichi Life Insurance of Vietnam Company, Hanoi, Vietnam
  • Bich Ngoc Nguyen Department of Occupational Health and Safety, Hanoi University of Public Health, Hanoi, Vietnam
  • Quynh Thuy Nguyen Department of Occupational Health and Safety, Hanoi University of Public Health, Hanoi, Vietnam



Cross-sectional study, Musculoskeletal pain, Occupational health, Persistent, Risk factor, Solid waste, Vietnam


BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are prevalent among waste collectors (WCs) in developing countries.

AIM: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of MSDs and the factors associated with the risk of persistent musculoskeletal pain among WCs in Hanoi, Vietnam.

METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was utilized to study 468 WCs in 2017. The Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Questionnaire and a questionnaire on demographic and work conditions were used to collect data. Descriptive and multivariate logistics regression analyzes were applied at a significance level of 0.05 to examine the factors related to the risk of persistent pain.

FINDINGS: About 74.4% of the participants of this study experienced MSDs in at least one body region and 9.4% reported MSDs in all 10 body sites. The lower back was reported to be the most affected followed by the neck and shoulders. The risk of persistent musculoskeletal pain was significantly associated with age (odds ratio (OR) = 2.31, confidence interval (CI) = 1.05–5.09), gender (OR = 3.29, CI = 1.28–8.44), work hours (OR = 2.35, CI = 1.12–4.92), work shift (OR = 0.48, CI = 0.26–0.92), duration of poor postures of the neck (OR = 0.31, CI = 0.13–0.76), bent back (OR = 0.4 CI = 0.18–0.92) and for medial rotation (OR = 3.01, CI = 1.42–6.36), carrying heavy objects (OR = 2.94, CI = 1.15–7.48), and experience of work dissatisfaction (OR = 3.31, CI = 1.46-7.52), stress (OR = 7.14, CI = 3.14–16.24), or anxiety (OR = 6.37, CI = 3.07–13.21).

CONCLUSIONS: High prevalence of MSDs among WCs and its association with self-assessed unfavorable work postures and work-related stress implies the need of mechanical and social support at work for WC to prevent the development of MSDs and persistent pain.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...

Plum Analytics Artifact Widget Block


James SL, Abate D, Abate KH, Abay SM, Abbafati C, Abbasi N, et al. Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 354 diseases and injuries for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2017: A systematic analysis for the global burden of disease study 2017. Lancet. 2018;392(10159):1789-858. 0/f.731220250.793569875 PMid:30496104

Blyth FM, Briggs AM, Schneider CH, Hoy DG, March LM. The global burden of musculoskeletal pain-where to from here? Am J Public Health. 2019;109(1):35-40. ajph.2018.304747 PMid:30495997

Malmberg-Ceder K, Haanpää M, Korhonen P, Kautiainen H. Relationship of musculoskeletal pain and well-being at workdoes pain matter? Scand J Pain. 2017;15:38-43. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.sjpain.2016.11.018 PMid:28850343

Korhan O, Memon AA. Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders. London: InTech Open; 2019.

Park J, Kim, Y, Han, B. Work sectors with high risk for workrelated musculoskeletal disorders in korean men and women. Saf Health Work. 2018;9(1):75-8. shaw.2017.06.005 PMid:30363078

Fulmer S, Buchholz B, Scribani M, Jenkins P. Musculoskeletal disorders in Northeast Lobstermen. Saf Health Work. 2017;8(3):282-9. PMid:28951805

Kaka B, Idowu OA, Fawole HO, Adeniyi AF, Ogwumike OO, Toryila MT. An analysis of work-related musculoskeletal disorders among butchers in Kano Metropolis, Nigeria. Saf Health Work. 2016;7(3):218-24. PMid:27630791

Karimi N, Moghimbeigi A, Motamedzade M, Roshanaei G. Evaluation of related risk factors in number of musculoskeletal disorders among carpet weavers in Iran. Saf Health Work. 2016;7(4):322-5. PMid:27924235

Ziaei M, Choobineh A, Abdoli-Eramaki M, Ghaem H. Individual, physical, and organizational risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders among municipality solid waste collectors in Shiraz, Iran. Ind Health. 2018;56(4):308-19. indhealth.2018-0011 PMid:29503392

Miranda H, Kaila-Kangas L, Heliövaara M, Leino-Arjas P, Haukka E, Liira J, et al. Musculoskeletal pain at multiple sites and its effects on work ability in a general working population. Occup Environ Med. 2010;67(7):449-55. oem.2009.048249 PMid:19889646

Tran TTT, Pham TC, Nguyen QT. After-shift musculoskeletal disorder symptoms in female workers and work-related factors: A cross-sectional study in a seafood processing factory in Vietnam. AIMS Public Health. 2016;3(4):733-49. https://doi. org/10.3934/publichealth.2016.4.733 PMid:29546192

Dunstan DA, Covic T, Tyson GA, Lennie IG. Does the orebro musculoskeletal pain questionnaire predict outcomes following a work-related compensable injury? Int J Rehabil Res. 2005;28(4):369-70. https://doi. org/10.1097/00004356-200512000-00012 PMid:16319565

Maher CG, Grotle, M. Evaluation of the predictive validity of the orebro musculoskeletal pain screening questionnaire. Clin J Pain. 2009;25(8):666-70. ajp.0b013e3181a08732 PMid:19920715

Hockings R, McAuley J, Maher C. A systematic review of the predictive ability of the orebro musculoskeletal pain questionnaire. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2008;33(15):E494-500. PMid:18594447

Gabel C, bullet G, Melloh M, Michael b, Yelland M, Burkett B, et al. Predictive ability of a modified orebro musculoskeletal pain questionnaire in an acute/subacute low back pain working population. Eur Spine J. 2011;20(3):449-57.https://doi. org/10.1007/s00586-010-1509-4 PMid:20632045

Linton S, Boersma K. Early identification of patients at risk of developing a persistent back problem: The predictive validity of the örebro musculoskeletal pain questionnaire. Clin J Pain. 2003;19(2):80-6. https://doi. org/10.1097/00002508-200303000-00002 PMid:12616177

Miranda VS, deCarvalho VB, Machado LA, Dias JM. Prevalence of chronic musculoskeletal disorders in elderly Brazilians: A systematic review of the literature. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2012;13(1):82. PMid:22642899

Ordóñez-Hernández C, Contreras-Estrada MI, SolteroAvelar R. Working women with chronic musculoskeletal pain: A case series. Cad Saude Publica. 2015;31(10):2223-33. https:// PMid:26735388

Norman ID. Neck, wrist and back pain among solid waste collectors: Case study of a ghanaian waste management company. Int J Environ Health Eng. 2013;6(1):59-66. https://doi. org/10.2174/1874944501306010059

Sukadarin E, Fac O, Nfm S. Musculoskeletal disorder among municipal solid waste collectors. Asia Pac Environ Occup Health J. 2017;3(1):28-32.

Abou-ElWafa H, El Bestar S, El-Gilany AH, El-Toraby E. Musculoskeletal disorders among municipal solid waste collectors in Mansoura, Egypt: A cross-sectional study. Occup Environ Med. 2012;2:e001338. bmjopen-2012-001338

Reddy EM, Yasobant S. Musculoskeletal disorders among municipal solid waste workers in India: A cross-sectional risk assessment. J Family Med Prim Care. 2015;4(4):519-24. https:// PMid:26985409

Jayakrishnan T, Jeeja MC, Bhaskar R. Occupational health problems of municipal solid waste management workers in India. Int J Environ Health Eng. 2013;2(1):42. https://doi. org/10.4103/2277-9183.122430

Çakıt E. Assessment of the physical demands of waste collection tasks. Glob NEST J. 2015;17(10):426-38.

Zolnikov T, Silva RC, Tuesta AA, Marques CP, Resende V, Cruvinel N. Ineffective waste site closures in Brazil: A systematic review on continuing health conditions and occupational hazards of waste collectors. Waste Manag. 2018;80:26-39. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.wasman.2018.08.047 PMid:30455007

Magnavita N, Elovainio M, De Nardis I, Heponiemi T. Environmental discomfort and musculoskeletal disorders. Occup Med (Lond). 2011;61(3):196-201. occmed/kqr024 PMid:21525071

Ziaei M, Choobineh A, Abdoli-Eramaki M, Ghaem H, Jaberi O. Psychological and physical job demands, decision latitude, and work-related social support among Iranian waste collectors. Waste Manag. 2019;95:377-87. wasman.2019.06.031 PMid:31351624

Menzel NN. Psychosocial factors in musculoskeletal disorders. Crit Care Nurs Clin North Am. 2007;19(2):145-53. PMid:17512470

Roquelaure Y, Ha C, Leclerc A, Touranchet A, Sauteron M, Melchior M, et al. Epidemiologic surveillance of upper-extremity musculoskeletal disorders in the working population. Arthritis Rheum. 2006;55(5):765-78. PMid:17013824

Luong ND, Thanh BX, Hung N. Challenges for municipal solid waste management practices in Vietnam. Waste Tech. 2013;1(1):17-21. wastech.1.1.2013.17-21

Terwee CB, Bot SD, de Boer MR, van der Windt DA, Knol DL, Dekker J, et al. Quality criteria were proposed for measurement properties of health status questionnaires. J Clin Epidemiol. 2007;60(1):34-42. PMid:17161752

World Health Organization. Innovative Care for Chronic Conditions: Building Blocks for Action. Contract No: WHO/MNC/ CCH/02.01. Geneva: World Health Organization, Health NDaM; 2002.

Karran E, McAuley J, Traeger A, Hillier S, Grabherr L, Russek L, et al. Can screening instruments accurately determine poor outcome risk in adults with recent onset low back pain? A systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Med. 2017;15:13. PMid:28100231

Gabel C, Melloh M, Burkett B, Osborne J, Yelland M. The orebro musculoskeletal screening questionnaire: Validation of a modified primary care musculoskeletal screening tool in an acute work injured population. Man Ther. 2012;17(6):554-65. PMid:22742989

Mehrdad R, Majlessi-Nasr M, Aminian O, Sharifian SA, Malekahmadi F. Musculoskeletal disorders among municipal solid waste workers. Acta Med Iran. 2008;46(3):233-8.

Hyang KL, Myong JP, Eun-Hee J, Hye-Sun J, Jung-Wan K. Ergonomic workload evaluation and musculo-skeletal symptomatic features of street cleaners. Ergon Soc Korea. 2007;26(4):147-52.

Camada IM, Pataro SM, Fernandes RC. Heavy physical work under time pressure: The garbage collection service-a case study. Work 2012;41 Suppl 1:462-9. wor-2012-0197-462 PMid:22316767

Baek JH, Kim YS, Yi KH. Relationship between comorbid health problems and musculoskeletal disorders resulting in musculoskeletal complaints and musculoskeletal sickness absence among employees in Korea. Saf Health Work. 2015;6(2):128-33. PMid:26106512




How to Cite

Nguyen BV, Tran TTT, Hoang NT, Nguyen BN, Nguyen QT. Musculoskeletal Pain and Work-related Risk Factors among Waste Collectors in Hanoi, Vietnam: A Cross-sectional Study. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2020 Sep. 2 [cited 2024 May 26];8(E):498-50. Available from:



Public Health Epidemiology