Effect of Ethanol Extract and Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Betel Nut (Areca catechu L.) in Colonic Goblet Cells of Mice (Mus musculus) Given Orally Infective Egg of Trichuris muris


  • Endy Juli Anto Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Indonesia; Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Methodist, Indonesia
  • Aznan Lelo Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Indonesian
  • Syafruddin Ilyas Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Sciences, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Indonesian
  • Marline Nainggolan Department of Pharmacy Biology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Indonesian




betel nut, goblet cells, infective eggs, trichuris muris, mice


BACKGROUND: Trichuris trichiura is a soil-transmitted parasitic worm commonly found in humid, tropical to subtropical areas, as well as poor sanitation area. These worms are cosmopolitan, especially in tropical and humid countries like Indonesia. This worm infection is more common in developing countries and more in children than adults due to poorer child self-hygiene. Worm disease is one of the common society diseases with 60% of children in Indonesia which are estimated to be affected. One species of T. trichiura worm that is often used in research on experimental animals is Trichuris muris. The administration of T. muris infective eggs can significantly increase the number of goblet cells in intestinal crypts of colon and cecum. Goblet cell hyperplasia will occur after exposure to high-dose T. muris (acute/200 infective eggs) in resistant mice. Various studies on the development of natural and traditional materials have been developing in the past few years to see the effects of betel nut on the number of goblet cells in the large intestine.

AIM: The aim of this research is to determine the effect of ethanol extract and the ethyl acetate fraction of betel nut on the change in the number of goblet cells in male mice given orally T. muris infective eggs.

METHODS: This study was an experimental study with a post-test only control group design in male mice (Mus musculus) which were given 200 infective eggs of T. muris. The study sample consisted of 70 mice divided into seven groups. Doses of the ethanol extract of betel nut are 100 mg/kg b.w. and 150 mg/kg b.w., and doses of ethyl acetate fraction are 100 mg/kg b.w. and 150 mg/kg b.w. The independent variable was ethanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction of betel nut. The dependent variable is the number of goblet cells. Mean differences in groups were tested by Mann–Whitney.

RESULTS: Statistical analysis showed a significant difference of p < 0.05 in the colonic crypts and cecum. In Group K (+), there was no increase in the number of goblet cells (54.2000 ± 30.54864) compared to Group K (−) (79.0750 ± 11.79221) in the colon. There was an increase in goblet cells in the 150 mg/kg b.w. of ethanol extract group (64.1000 ± 29.50381), the 150 mg/kg b.w. of ethyl acetate fraction group (56.2250 ± 22.11035), and the 1 mg/20 g of albendazole group (68.3750 ± 11.30956) in the colon. Likewise, there was an increase in the number of goblet cells in the cecum. It can be concluded that 150 mg/kg b.w. of the ethanol extract of betel nut can effectively increase the number of goblet cells in the colon and cecum.

CONCLUSION: Ethanol extract of betel nut 150 mg / kg of weight can effectively increase the number of goblet cells in the colon and caecum.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...

Plum Analytics Artifact Widget Block


Hotez PJ, Molyneux DH, Fenwick A, Kumaresan J, Sachs SE, Sachs JD, et al. Control of neglected tropical diseases. N Engl J Med. 2007;357(10):1018-27. PMid:17804846

Srichaikul B, Samappito S, Bakker G, Seubsoh W, Boonsong K. Comparative double blind trial in antihelmintic efficacy between mebendazole and Areca catechu L. Res J Med Sci. 2012;6(3):124-8.

Miller HR, Nawa Y. Nippostrongylus brasiliensis: Intestinal goblet-cell response in adoptively immunized rats. J Exp Parasitol. 1979;47(1):81-90. PMid:421768

Ilyas S, Nadapdap TP. Histokimia dan Imunohistokimia. Indonesia: Medan USU Press; 2017.

MacDonald AS, Araujo MI, Pearce EJ. Immunology of parasitic helminth infections. Infect Immun. 2002;70(2):427-33. PMid:11796567

Zakeri A, Hansen EP, Andersen SD, Williams AR, Nejsum P. Immunomodulation by helminths: Intracellular pathways and extracellular vesicles. Front Immunol. 2018;9:2349. PMid:30369927

Sitcharungsi R, Sirivichayakul C. Allergic diseases and helminth infections. Pathog Glob Health. 2013;107(3):110-5. PMid:23683364

Bradley JE, Jackson JA. Immunity, immunoregulation and the ecology of trichuriasis and ascariasis. Parasite Immunol. 2004;26(11-12):429-41. PMid:15771679

Wang CK, Lee WH. Separation, characteristics, and biological activities of phenolics in Areca fruit. J Agric Food Chem. 1996;44:2014-9.

Amudhan MS, Begum VH, Hebbar KB. A review on phytochemical and pharmacological potential of Areca catechu L. Seed. Int J Pharm Sci Res. 2012;3(11):4151-7.

Sharma S, Anand N. Chapter 3-natural product. Pharmacochem Libr. 1997;25:71-123.

Nonaka GI, Hsu FL, Nishioka I. Structures of dimeric, trimeric and tetrameric procyanidins from Areca catechu L. J Chem Soc Chem Commun. 1981;15:781-3.

Shahidi F, Naczk M. Phenolic compounds in cereals and legumes. In: Food Phenolics: Sources, Chemistry, Effects, Applications. Lancaster, PA: Technomic Inc.; 1995. p. 13-8.

Turner JE, Stockinger B, Helmby H. IL-22 mediates goblet cell hyperplasia and worm expulsion in intestinal helminth infection. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9(10):e1003698. PMid:24130494

Klementowicz JE, Travis MA, Grencis RK. Trichuris muris: A model of gastrointestinal parasite infection. Semin Immunopathol. 2012;34(6):815-28. PMid:23053395

Erickson NA, Nystrom EL, Mundhenk L, Arike L, Glauben R, Heimesaat MM, et al. The goblet cell protein clca1 (mClca3 or Gob-5) is not required for intestinal mucus synthesis, structure and barrier function in naive or DSS-challenged mice. PLoS One. 2015;10(7):e0131991. PMid:26162072

Saxena M, Saxena J, Nema R, Singh D, Gupta A. Phytochemistry of medicinal plants. J Pharmacogn Phytochem. 2013;1:168-82.

Poolperm S, Jiraungkoorskul W. An update review on the anthelmintic activity of bitter gourd, Momordica charantia. Pharmacogn Rev. 2017;11(21):31-4. PMid:28503051

Herbert DB, Yang JQ, Hogan SP, Groschwitz K, Khodoun M, Munitz A, et al. Intestinal epithelial cell secretion of RELM-beta protects against gastrointestinal worm infection. J Exp Med. 2009;206(13):2947-57. PMid:19995957




How to Cite

Anto EJ, Lelo A, Ilyas S, Nainggolan M. Effect of Ethanol Extract and Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Betel Nut (Areca catechu L.) in Colonic Goblet Cells of Mice (Mus musculus) Given Orally Infective Egg of Trichuris muris. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2020 Aug. 25 [cited 2023 Sep. 26];8(B):637-42. Available from: https://oamjms.eu/index.php/mjms/article/view/4878

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 4 > >>