Effect of Ethanol Extract and Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Betel Nut (Areca catechu L.) in Colonic Goblet Cells of Mice (Mus musculus) Given Orally Infective Egg of Trichuris muris
Keywords:betel nut, goblet cells, infective eggs, trichuris muris, mice
BACKGROUND: Trichuris trichiura is a soil-transmitted parasitic worm commonly found in humid, tropical to subtropical areas, as well as poor sanitation area. These worms are cosmopolitan, especially in tropical and humid countries like Indonesia. This worm infection is more common in developing countries and more in children than adults due to poorer child self-hygiene. Worm disease is one of the common society diseases with 60% of children in Indonesia which are estimated to be affected. One species of T. trichiura worm that is often used in research on experimental animals is Trichuris muris. The administration of T. muris infective eggs can significantly increase the number of goblet cells in intestinal crypts of colon and cecum. Goblet cell hyperplasia will occur after exposure to high-dose T. muris (acute/200 infective eggs) in resistant mice. Various studies on the development of natural and traditional materials have been developing in the past few years to see the effects of betel nut on the number of goblet cells in the large intestine.
AIM: The aim of this research is to determine the effect of ethanol extract and the ethyl acetate fraction of betel nut on the change in the number of goblet cells in male mice given orally T. muris infective eggs.
METHODS: This study was an experimental study with a post-test only control group design in male mice (Mus musculus) which were given 200 infective eggs of T. muris. The study sample consisted of 70 mice divided into seven groups. Doses of the ethanol extract of betel nut are 100 mg/kg b.w. and 150 mg/kg b.w., and doses of ethyl acetate fraction are 100 mg/kg b.w. and 150 mg/kg b.w. The independent variable was ethanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction of betel nut. The dependent variable is the number of goblet cells. Mean differences in groups were tested by Mann–Whitney.
RESULTS: Statistical analysis showed a significant difference of p < 0.05 in the colonic crypts and cecum. In Group K (+), there was no increase in the number of goblet cells (54.2000 ± 30.54864) compared to Group K (−) (79.0750 ± 11.79221) in the colon. There was an increase in goblet cells in the 150 mg/kg b.w. of ethanol extract group (64.1000 ± 29.50381), the 150 mg/kg b.w. of ethyl acetate fraction group (56.2250 ± 22.11035), and the 1 mg/20 g of albendazole group (68.3750 ± 11.30956) in the colon. Likewise, there was an increase in the number of goblet cells in the cecum. It can be concluded that 150 mg/kg b.w. of the ethanol extract of betel nut can effectively increase the number of goblet cells in the colon and cecum.
CONCLUSION: Ethanol extract of betel nut 150 mg / kg of weight can effectively increase the number of goblet cells in the colon and caecum.
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