Association of Gender, Triglyceride/HDL Ratio, and Physical Activity of Obese Adolescents in Makassar


  • Nurhaedar Jafar Nutrition Study Program, Faculty of Public Health, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia
  • Aminuddin Syam Nutrition Study Program, Faculty of Public Health, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia
  • Yessy Kurniati Public Health Study Program, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Islamic State University of Alauddin, Makassar, Indonesia
  • Een Kurnaesih Department of Health Administrationa, Faculty of Public Health, Muslim University of Indonesia, Makassar, Indonesia
  • Reza Aril Ahri Department of Health Administrationa, Faculty of Public Health, Muslim University of Indonesia, Makassar, Indonesia
  • Nurlela Jamaluddin Department of Health Administrationa, Faculty of Public Health, Muslim University of Indonesia, Makassar, Indonesia



Gender, Adolescents, Obesity, Triglyceride/HDL Ratio


BACKGROUND: Obesity may cause the increase of triglyceride and decrease of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. Triglyceride/HDL ratio is associated with metabolic disorders. Physical activity is one of the important aspects in preventing obesity. Gender is known to have a relationship with these factors, but it has been inconsistent.

AIM: This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between sex and triglycerides, levels of HDL, triglycerides/HDL ratio, and physical activity of obese adolescents in Makassar.

METHODS: This study used a cross-sectional design involving 93 samples of obese adolescents from three high schools. Measurement of triglyceride and HDL levels was performed by the Prodia laboratory, while physical activity was measured using the International Physical Activity Questioner. Data analysis was performed with Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests.

RESULTS: The results showed that there is a relationship between gender and triglyceride levels (p = 0.006) and HDL (p = 0.034), but no relationship between the ratio of TG/HDL (p = 0.109) and physical activity was found (p = 0.339).

CONCLUSION: Efforts should be made to reduce the level of risk adolescent obesity on the risk of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease, including increase physical activity. Physical activity is important to maintain the physical and mental of obese adolescents.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...

Plum Analytics Artifact Widget Block


Mahfouz AA, Shatoor AS, Khan MY, Daffalla AA, Mostafa OA, Hassanein MA. Nutrition, physical activity, and gender risks for adolescent obesity in Southwestern Saudi Arabia. Saudi J Gastroenterol. 2011;17(5):318-22. https://doi. org/10.4103/1319-3767.84486 PMid:21912058

Hussain Z, Mehmood S, Hussain B, Ali I, Afzal S. Prevalence of obesity on gender base at Gilgit City Pakistan. Adv Obes Weight Manag Control. 2017;6(2):59-62. aowmc.2017.06.00149

Negash S, Agyemang C, Matsha TE, Peer N, Erasmus RT, Kengne AP. Differential prevalence and associations of overweight and obesity by gender and population group among school learners in South Africa: A cross-sectional study. BMC Obes. 2017;4:29. PMid:28725448

Lissau I. Body mass index and overweight in adolescents in 13 European Countries, Israel, and the United States. Arch Padiatr Adolesc Med. 2004;158(1):27-33. archpedi.158.1.27 PMid:14706954

Lobstein T, Frelut ML. Prevalence of overweight among children in Europe. Obes Rev. 2003;4(4):195-200. https://doi. org/10.1046/j.1467-789x.2003.00116.x PMid:14649370

Nieves DJ, Cnop M, Retzlaff B, Walden CE, Brunzell JD, Knopp RH, et al. The atherogenic lipoprotein profile associated with obesity and insulin resistance is largely attributable to intra-abdominal fat. Diabetes. 2003;52(1):172-9. https://doi. org/10.2337/diabetes.52.1.172 PMid:12502509

Jafar N, Kurniati Y, Indriasari R, Syam A, Arviani A, Patintingan M. Analysis of triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein levels in overweight adolescents. Pak J Nutr. 2019;18(8):778-82. https://

Sinsanta S, Halim SL, Iskandar I. Correlation of body mass index and blood triglyceride levels of UKRIDA medical faculty students for the 2004/2005 academic year. Med Med J. 2006;14(38):1-8.

Sinaga I, Tobing CJ, Ardinata D. Description of triglyceride levels in obese adults in pasar II Tanjung Suri Medan. J Methodist Med. 2018;11(2):215-8.

Nguyen D, Kit B, Carrol M. Abnormal cholesterol among children and adolescents in the United States, 2011-2014. NCHS Data Brief. 2015;228:1-8. PMid:26727279

Aranmolate A. Comparison of abnormal cholesterol in children, adolescent and adults in the United States, 2011-2014: Review. Eur J Environ Public Health. 2017;1(1):1-8. https://doi. org/10.20897/ejeph/75156

Shah AS, Heink A, Sexmith H, Dolan L, Gordon S, Khoury J, et al. Obesity drives the decline in large HDL subspecies among male adolescent. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2017;37(1):A220.

Dobiásová M, Frohlich J. The plasma parameter log (TG/ HDL-C) as an atherogenic index: Correlation with lipoprotein particle size and esterification rate in apoB-lipoprotein-depleted plasma (FER(HDL)). Clin Biochem. 2001;34:583-8. https://doi. org/10.1016/s0009-9120(01)00263-6 PMid:11738396

Yeom H, Kim HC, Lee JM, Jeon Y, Suh I. Triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio among adolescents is associated with adult hypertension: The Kangwha study. Lipids Health Dis. 2018;17:212. s12944-018-0861-y PMid:30200983

Mustelin L, Silventoinen K, Pietiläinen K, Rissanen A, Kaprio J. Physical activity reduces the influence of genetic effects on BMI and waist circumference: A study in young adult twins. Int J Obes (Lond). 2009;33(1):29-36. PMid:19048013

Hills AP, King NA, Armstrong TP. The contribution of physical activity and sedentary behaviours to the growth and development of children and adolescents: Implications for overweight and obesity. Sport Med. 2007;37(6):533-45. https:// PMid:17503878

Caglar E, Aşçı FH. Gender and physical activity level differences in physical self-perception of university students: A case of Turkey. Int J Sport Psychol. 2006;37:58-74.

Santos P, Guerra S, Ribeiro JC, Duarte JA, Mota J. Age and gender-related physical activity. A descriptive study in children using accelerometry. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2003;43(1):85-9.

Raskind I, Patil SS, Cunningham SA, Kramer MR. Physical activity patterns among Indian adolescent: Independent and join association of gender and socioeconomic status. Circulation. 2019;139(Suppl 1):322. suppl_1.p322

Pacifico L, Bonci E, Andreoli G, Romaggioli S, Di Miscio R, Lombardo CV, et al. Association of serum triglyceride-to-HDL cholesterol ratio with carotid artery intima-media thickness, insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in children and adolescents. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2014;24(7):737- 43. PMid:24656140

Sung KC, Reaven G, Kim S. Ability of the plasma concentration ratio of triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol to identify increased cardio-metabolic risk in an East Asian population. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2014;105(1):96-101. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.diabres.2014.04.021

Kim HJ, Park HA, Cho YG. Gender difference in the level of HDL cholesterol in Korean adult. Korean J Fam Med. 2011;32(3):173- 81.

Mascitelli L, Pezzetta F. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol and sex difference in coronary heart disease risk. Am J Med. 2006;119(5):e17.

Rossouw JE. Hormones, genetic factors, and gender differences in cardiovascular disease. Cardiovasc Res. 2002;53(3):550-7.

Turek LV. Gender-dependent association of HSD11B1 single nucleotide polymorphisms with glucose and HDL-C levels. Genet Mol Biol. 2014;37(3):490-5. s1415-47572014000400003

Le-Ha C, Beilin LJ, Burrows S, Huang RC, Oddy WH, Hands B, et al. Gender difference in the relationship between passive smoking exposure and HDL-cholesterol levels in late adolescence. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013;98(5):2126-35.

Peterson LR, Soto PF, Herrero P, Mohammed BS, Avidan MS, Schechtman KB, et al. Impact of gender on the myocardial metabolic response to obesity. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2008;1(4):424-33. PMid:19356462

Mahbuba S, Mohsin F, Rahat F, Nahar J, Begum T, Nahar N. Descriptive epidemiology of metabolic syndrome among obese adolescent population. Diabetes Metab Syndr Clin Res Rev. 2018;12(3):369-74.

He F, Rodriguez-Colon S, Fernandez-Mendoza J, Vgontzas AN, Bixler EO, Berg A, et al. Abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome burden in adolescents--Penn State children cohort study. J Clin Densitom. 2015;18(1):30-6. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.jocd.2014.07.009 PMid:25220887

Wu H, Xiong L, Xu Q, Wu J, Huang R, Guo Q, et al. Higher serum triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio was associated with increased cardiovascular mortality in female patients on peritoneal dialysis. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2015;25(8):749-55. numecd.2015.05.006

Quijada Z, Paoli M, Zerpa Y, Camacho N, Cichetti R, Villarroel V, et al. The triglyceride/HDL-cholesterol ratio as a marker of cardiovascular risk in obese children; association with traditional and emergent risk factors. Pediatr Diabetes. 2008;9(5):464-71. PMid:18507788

Gasevic D, Frohlich J, Mancini GJ, Lear SA. Clinical uselfulness of lipid ratios to identify men and women with metabolic syndrome: A cross-sectional study. Lipids Health Dis. 2014;13:159. PMid:25300321

Taber DR, Robinson WR, Bleich SN, Wang YC. Deconstructing race and gender differences in adolescent obesity: Oaxacablinder decomposition. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2016;24(3):719- 26.

Halliday A, Kern ML, Turnbull DA. Can physical activity help explain the gender gap in adolescent mental health? A crosssectional exploration. Ment Health Phys Act. 2019;16:8-18.

Bloetzer C, Bovet P, Suris JC, Simeoni U, Paradis G, Chiolero A. Screening for cardiovascular disease risk factors beginning in childhood. Public Health Rev. 2015;36:9. s40985-015-0011-2

Chen X, Wang Y. Tracking of blood pressure from childhood to adulthood: A systematic review and meta-regression analysis. Circulation. 2008;117(25):3171-80. circulationaha.107.730366 PMid:18559702

Woudberg NJ, Goedecke JH, Blackhurst D, Frias M, James R, Opie LH, et al. Association between ethnicity and obesity with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) function and subclass distribution. Lipids Health Dis. 2016;15:92. s12944-016-0257-9 PMid:27169717




How to Cite

Jafar N, Syam A, Kurniati Y, Kurnaesih E, Ahri RA, Jamaluddin N. Association of Gender, Triglyceride/HDL Ratio, and Physical Activity of Obese Adolescents in Makassar. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2020 Sep. 25 [cited 2021 Sep. 20];8(T2):81-6. Available from:

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>