An Online Survey: Assessing Anxiety Level among General Population during the Coronavirus Disease-19 Pandemic in Indonesia


  • Kholisotul Hikmah Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, West Java, Indonesia
  • Lucky Prisandy Department of Nursing, Poltekkes Kemenkes Pontianak, Pontianak, West Kalimantan, Indonesia
  • Gea Melinda Department of Public Health, Graduate School of Health Sciences, Kobe University, Kobe, Japan
  • M. Ibraar Ayatullah Department of Dental Health, Poltekkes Kemenkes Kupang, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia



anxiety level, media exposure, screen time, physical activity, anxiety diagnosis


BACKGROUND: Indonesia, the world’s fourth-most populous country, is grappling with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) catastrophe as cases continue to rise. This situation induces uncertainties and changes in daily life, leading to uneasiness among the population, which may trigger anxiety symptoms.

AIM: This study aimed to analyze the factors associated with the anxiety level among the general population during the COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia.

METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 267 adults from June 10, 2020, to June 15, 2020, the transition phase week after Large-scale Social Restriction of Indonesia. The survey was conducted online using a Google Form distributed through social media (WhatsApp, Instagram, Facebook, and Twitter). Respondents over 18 years old, who agreed to participate in this study, were asked to complete the questionnaire by clicking the link. The anxiety level was measured by the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale.

RESULTS: The results of this study showed a significant correlation between age (p = 0.010), education (p = 0.039), personal income (p = 0.034), media exposure (p < 0.01), physical activity (p < 0.01), and anxiety diagnosis (p < 0.01) with the anxiety level among general people. However, ordinal logistics regression revealed that only respondents living in the city (odds ratio [OR] = 2.476) and people with clinician-anxiety diagnosis (OR = 5.116) were more likely to experience anxiety symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia.

CONCLUSION: According to the obtained results, age, education level, average income per month, media exposure, physical activity, and anxiety diagnosis correlated with anxiety incidence, whereas risk factors of anxiety included current residence and anxiety diagnosis.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...

Plum Analytics Artifact Widget Block


Wuhan Municipal Health Commission. Report of Clustering Pneumonia of Unknown Etiology in Wuhan City. Wuhan, China: Wuhan Municipal Health Commission; 2020. Available: http:// [Last accessed 2019 Dec 31].

World Health Organization. Mental Health and Psychosocial Considerations during the COVID-19 Outbreak. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2020. Available from: https://www.who. int/publications/i/item/WHO-2019-nCoV-MentalHealth-2020.1. [Last accessed 2020 Mar 18].

Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. COVID-19 Dalam Angka. Jakarta, Indonesia: Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia; 2020. Available from: [Last accessed on 2020 Jun 03].

Djalante R, Lassa J, Setiamarga D, Sudjatma A, Indrawan M, Haryanto B, Mahfud C, et al. Review and analysis of current responses to COVID-19 in Indonesia: Period of January to March 2020. Prog Disaster Sci. 2020;6:100091.

Wulandari P, Hidayat R. General anxiety disorder-related coronavirus disease-19 outbreak in Indonesia: A case report. Open Access Maced J Med Sci. 2020;8(T1):36-8.

Gatineau M, Dent M. Obesity and Mental Health. Oxford: National Obesity Observatory; 2011.

American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2013.

Blakey SM, Abramowitz JS. Psychological predictors of health anxiety in response to the Zika virus. J Clin Psychol Med Settings. 2017;24(3-4):270-8. PMid:29063232

Zhang Y, Ma ZF. Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health and quality of life among local residents in Liaoning Province, China: A cross-sectional study. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(7):2381. PMid:32244498

Boswell JF, Thompson-Hollands J, Farchione TJ, Barlow DH. Intolerance of uncertainty: A common factor in the treatment of emotional disorders. J Clin Psychol. 2013;69(6):630-45. PMid:23381685

Khosravi M. Stress reduction model of COVID-19 pandemic. Iran J Psychiatry Behav Sci. 2020;14(2):e103865.

Van Minnen A, Hendriks L, Olff M. When do trauma experts choose exposure therapy for PTSD patients? A controlled study of therapist and patient factors. Behav Res Ther. 2010;48(4):312- 20. PMid:20056195

Pengpid S, Peltzer K. High sedentary behaviour and low physical activity are associated with anxiety and depression in Myanmar and Vietnam. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019;16(7):1251. PMid:30965618

Neria Y, Sullivan GM. Understanding the mental health effects of indirect exposure to mass trauma through the media. JAMA. 2011;306(12):1374-5. PMid:21903818

Mertens G, Gerritsen L, Duijndam S, Salemink E, Engelhard IM. Fear of the coronavirus (COVID-19): Predictors in an online study conducted in March 2020. J Anxiety Disord. 2020;74:102258.

Holman EA, Garfin DR, Silver RC. Media’s role in broadcasting acute stress following the Boston Marathon bombings. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111(1):93-8. pnas.1316265110 PMid:24324161

Chatterjee SS, Barikar CM, Mukherjee A. Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on pre-existing mental health problems. Asian J Psychiatr. 2020;51:102071. PMid:32334407

Ramdan IM. Reliability and validity test of the indonesian version of the hamilton anxiety rating scale (HAM-A) to measure work-related stress in nursing. J NERS. 2019;14(1):33-40.

Craig CL, Marshall AL, Sjöström M, Bauman AE, Booth ML, Ainsworth BE, et al. International physical activity questionnaire: 12-country reliability and validity. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003;35(8):1381-95. PMid:12900694

Qiu J, Shen B, Zhao M, Wang Z, Xie B, Xu Y. A nationwide survey of psychological distress among Chinese people in the COVID-19 epidemic: Implications and policy recommendations. Gen Psychiatry. 2020;33(2):e100213.

Willie TC, Powell A, Kershaw T. Stress in the city: Influence of urban social stress and violence on pregnancy and postpartum quality of life among adolescent and young mothers. J Urban Health. 2016;93(1):19-35. PMid:26791234

Bennett MD Jr., Miller DB. An exploratory study of the Urban Hassles Index: A contextually relevant measure of chronic multidimensional urban stressors. Res Soc Work Pract. 2006;16(3):305-14.

Tobler AL, Maldonado-Molina MM, Staras SA, O’Mara RJ, Livingston MD, Komro KA. Perceived racial/ethnic discrimination, problem behaviors, and mental health among minority urban youth. Ethn Health. 2013;18(4):337-49. PMid:23043428

Landis D, Gaylord-Harden NK, Malinowski SL, Grant KE, Carleton RA, Ford RE. Urban adolescent stress and hopelessness. J Adolesc. 2007;30(6):1051-70. PMid:17467052

Stueve A, O’Donnell L. Urban young women’s experiences of discrimination and community violence and intimate partner violence. J Urban Health. 2008;85(3):386-401. PMid:18347993

Gruebner O, Rapp MA, Adli M, Kluge U, Galea S, Heinz A. Cities and mental health. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2017;114(8):121-7. PMid:28302261

Subbaraman R, Nolan L, Shitole T, Sawant K, Shitole S, Sood K, et al. The psychological toll of slum living in Mumbai, India: A mixed methods study. Soc Sci Med. 2014;119:155-69. PMid:25189736

Bao Y, Sun Y, Meng S, Shi J, Lu L. 2019-nCoV epidemic: Address mental health care to empower society. Lancet. 2020;395(10224):e37-8. PMid:32043982

Gao J, Zheng P, Jia Y, Chen H, Mao Y, Chen S, et al. Mental health problems and social media exposure during COVID- 19 outbreak. PLoS One. 2020;15(4):e0231924. PMid:32298385

Niederkrotenthaler T, Stack S, Till B, Sinyor M, Pirkis J, Garcia D, et al. Association of increased youth suicides in the United States with the release of 13 reasons why. JAMA Psychiatry. 2019;76(9):933-40.


Common Sense Media. The Common Sense Census: Media Use by Tweens and Teens; 2015. Available from: https://www. landmark-report-us-teens-use-an-average-of-nine-hours-of-media-per-day. [Last accessed on 2015 Nov 03].

Khosravi M. Perceived risk of COVID-19 pandemic: The role of public worry and trust. Electron J Gen Med. 2020;17(4):em203.

Mitchell A, Oliphant JB, Shearer E. About Seven-in-Ten U.S Adults say they Need to Take Breaks from COVID-19 News; 2020. Available from: about-seven-in-ten-u-s-adults-say-they-need-to-take-breaks-from-covid-19-news. [Last accessed on 2020 Apr 29].

Twenge JM, Campbell WK. Associations between screen time and lower psychological well-being among children and adolescents: Evidence from a population-based study. Prev Med Rep. 2018;12:271-83.

Babic MJ, Smith JJ, Morgan PJ, Eather N, Plotnikoff RC, Lubans DR. Longitudinal associations between changes in screen-time and mental health outcomes in adolescents. Ment Health Phys Act. 2017;12:124-31.

Odgers C. Smartphones are bad for some adolescents, not all. Nature. 2018;554(7693):432-4.


Przybylski AK, Weinstein N. A large-scale test of the goldilocks hypothesis: Quantifying the relations between digital-screen use and the mental well-being of adolescents. Psychol Sci. 2017;28(2):204-15.

Wahyuni AS, Siahaan FB, ArfaM, Alona I, Nerdy N. The relationship between the duration of playing gadget and mental emotional state of elementary school students. Open Access Maced J Med Sci. 2019;7(1):148-51.

Chen P, Mao L, Nassis GP, Harmer P, Ainsworth BE, Li F. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): The need to maintain regular physical activity while taking precautions. J Sport Health Sci. 2020;9(2):103-4. PMid:30740180

Anderson EH, Shivakumar G. Effects of exercise and physical activity on anxiety. Front Psychiatry. 2013;4:27. PMid:23630504

Lesser IA, Nienhuis CP. The Impact of COVID-19 on physical activity behavior and well-being of Canadians. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(11):3899. PMid:32486380

Stults-Kolehmainen MA, Sinha R. The effects of stress on physical activity and exercise. Sports Med. 2014;44(1):81-121. PMid:24030837

McLean CP, Asnaani A, Litz BT, Hofmann SG. Gender differences in anxiety disorders: Prevalence, course of illness, comorbidity and burden of illness. J Psychiatr Res. 2011;45(8):1027-35. PMid:21439576




How to Cite

Hikmah K, Prisandy L, Melinda G, Ayatullah MI. An Online Survey: Assessing Anxiety Level among General Population during the Coronavirus Disease-19 Pandemic in Indonesia. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2020 Nov. 13 [cited 2021 Dec. 4];8(T1):451-8. Available from: