Pesticide Toxicity Prevention in Farmer’s Community Movement

Authors

  • Eka Lestari Mahyuni Department of Occupational Safety and Health, Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia
  • Urip Harahap Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia
  • R. Hamdani Harahap Department of Social Anthropology, Faculty of Social and Politics, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia
  • Nurmaini Nurmaini Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2021.5565

Keywords:

Farmer, Gerakan Masyarakat Petani Atasi Racun, Pesticide, Prevention, Toxicity

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Pesticide toxicity is a serious problem in poor and developing countries agricultural communities, including Indonesia.

AIM: This study aims to design an effort of pesticide toxicity prevention.

METHODS: This is participation action research in look, think, and action cycle of pesticide use process as a qualitative study. The participants were taken by purposive technique and data collected with focus group discussion, in-depth interviews, self-report, and observation. Data were analyzed by thematic analysis. All participants are the commitment farmers that able to prevent and resolve the pesticide toxicity problem. This research has ethical clearance with number 1608/I/SP/2019.

RESULTS: The results found that the determinant factor of pesticide toxicity is a high risk such as direct contact, unusually personal protection used, bad behavior such as spraying while smoking, blowing pump hoses directly, poor personal hygiene, pesticide storage, and disposal action. Several factors that influence are ignorance of farmers about the toxic effects that cause chronic toxicity. To prevent pesticide toxicity, we found the eight principles of pesticide use that formulated based on the epidemiology prevention approach that meets the level of primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. It called Community Movement in Toxic Resolve or Gerakan Masyarakat Petani Atasi Racun (GEMPAR) arranged as an effort to prevent toxicity, including recognizing the hazard of pesticide, completely personal protection used, paying attention to the wind direction and spraying route, store pesticides in a safe place, safely dispose of pesticides, personal hygiene, record, and report toxicity symptom, and going to organic farming.

CONCLUSION: The effort of pesticide toxicity could prevent in successful by a community movement called GEMPAR that divides into eight principles of prevention action in pesticide used.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Plum Analytics Artifact Widget Block

References

Fikri E, Setiani O, Nurjazuli N. Hubungan paparan pestisida dengan kandungan arsen (As) dalam urin dan kejadian anemia (Studi: Pada petani penyemprot pestisida di kabupaten Brebes). J Kesehat Lingkung Indones. 2012;11(1):29-37. https://doi.org/10.14710/jkli.16.2.63-69

World Health Organization. World Health Statistics 2017: Monitoring Health for the SDGs, Sustainable Development Goals. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2017. https://doi.org/10.2471/blt.15.165027

Zhang X, Zhao W, Jing R, Wheeler K, Smith GA, Stallones L, et al. Work-related pesticide poisoning among farmers in two villages of Southern China: A cross-sectional survey. BMC Public Health. 2011;11(1):429. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-11-429 PMid:21639910

Purwati A. Pestisida Ganggu Kesehatan Petani; 2010. Available from: http://www.beritabumi.or.id/penelitian-panap-pestisidaganggu-kesehatan-petani. [Last accessed on 2015 Mar 06]. https://doi.org/10.15294/kemas.v10i2.3387

United Nations Children’s Fund. Understanding the Impact of Pesticides on Children: A Disccussion Paper. New York, USA: United Nations Children’s Fund; 2018. https://doi.org/10.18356/ ef9029fc-en

Sukmawati A, Maharani IP. Hubungan antara perilaku dalam pengelolaan pestisida dengan aktivitas enzim cholinesterase darah pada petani cabe di desa santana mekar kecamatan cisayong kabupaten Tasikmalaya. J Ekol Kesehat. 2004;3(2):80- 9. https://doi.org/10.33368/woh.v0i0.285

Eliza T, Hasanuddin T, Situmorang S. Perilaku petani dalam penggunaan pestisida kimia (kasus petani cabai di pekon gisting atas kecamatan gisting kabupaten Tanggamus). J Ilmu Ilmu Agribisnis. 2013;1(4):334-42. https://doi.org/10.32487/ jshp.v4i1.783

Prijanto TB, Nurjazuli N, Sulistiyani S. Analisis faktor risiko keracunan pestisida organofosfat pada keluarga petani hortikultura di kecamatan ngablak kabupaten Magelang. J Kesehat Lingkung Indones. 2009;8(2):73-8. https://doi.org/10.14710/jkli.16.2.63-69

Sinulingga K. Telaah residu organoklor pada wortel Daucus carota L. di kawasan sentra kab. Karo Sumut. J Sist Tek Ind. 2006;7(1):92-7.

Aktar W, Sengupta D, Chowdhury A. Impact of pesticides use in agriculture: Their benefits and hazards. Interdiscip Toxicol. 2009;2(1):1-12. https://doi.org/10.2478/v10102-009-0001-7 PMid:21217838

Lu FC. Toksikologi Dasar (Asas, Organ Sasaran, dan Penilaian Resiko). Edisi Kedu. Jakarta: Universitas Indonesia Press; 2006.

Munawir K. Pestisida organoklorin di perairan teluk klabat pulau bangka. Oseanol Limnol Indones. 2010;36(1):1-19.

Karyadi K. Dampak penggunaan pupuk dan pestisida yang berlebihan terhadap kandungan residu tanah pertanian bawang merah di kecamatan gemuh kabupaten Kendal. Agromedia. 2008;26(1):10-9. https://doi.org/10.14710/jil.9.1.1-9

Munawir K. Pemantauan kadar pestisida organoklorin di beberapa muara sungai di perairan teluk Jakarta. Oseanol Limnol Indones. 2005;37:13-23.

Dinas Kesehatan Kabupaten Karo. Data Pemeriksaan Cholinesterase Pengguna Pestisida Kabupaten Karo Tahun 2008. Kabanjahe: Subdin P2P & PL, Dinas Kesehatan Kabupaten Karo; 2008. https://doi.org/10.33085/jkg.v2i3.4436

Rumah Sakit Umum Kabanjahe. Data Pasien Intoksikasi Periode Januari-Oktober 2017: Rekam Medik Rumah Sakit Umum Kabanjahe Kabupaten Karo. Kabanjahe; Rumah Sakit Umum Kabanjahe; 2018. https://doi.org/10.22146/bkm.27301

Moekasan TK, Prabaningrum L. Penggunaan Pestisida Berdasarkan Konsepsi Pengendalian Hama Terpadu (PHT). Lembang, Bandung Barat: Yayasan Bina Tani Sejahtera; 2011. p. 45.

Setiawan DA, Redjeki ES, Nasution Z. Analisis proses pembelajaran dalam konsep pemberdayaan kelompok tani. J Pendidik. 2017;2(8):1077-80.

Arfan A, Araswaty A. Pkm pemberdayaan petani bawang merah lokal palu melalui penerapan model SLPHT di desa wombo kecamatan tanantovea kab. Donggala provinsi sulawesi Tengah. J Pengabdi Masy. 2018;1(10):14-9. https://doi.org/10.31970/ abditani.v1i0.8

Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. Entaskan Kemiskinan Desa, Kementerian Pertanian Canangkan Program Bekerja. Jakarta: Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia; 2018. Available from: http://www.depkes.go.id/pdf. php?id=18042300006. [Last accessed on 2019 Feb 04]. https://doi.org/10.33007/inf.v4i3.1549

Kurniasari L, Hartati I, Riwayati I. Pemberdayaan masyarakat petani dengan penerapan teknologi pembuatan insektisida nabati dari limbah penyulingan daun nilam. Momentum. 2009;5(2):41-5.

Sumarti T, Nasdian FT, Pranadji T, Rachman HP, Sonaji R, Masithoh S. Model Pemberdayaan Petani dalam Mewujudkan Desa Mandiri dan Sejahtera. Ringkasan Eksekutif Hasil-Hasil Penelitian 2007, Kerjasama Kemitraan Penelitian Pertanian dengan Perguruan Tinggi (KKP3T). Bogor, Indonesia: Bogor Agricultural University; 2007. https://doi.org/10.6066/jtip.2016.27.2.175

Syahyuti S. Relevansi konsep dan gerakan pertanian keluarga (Family Farming) serta Karakteristiknya di Indonesia. Forum Penelit Agro Ekon. 2016;34(2):87-101. https://doi.org/10.21082/fae.v34n2.2016.87-101

Tanziha I. Model pemberdayaan petani menuju ketahanan pangan keluarga. J Gizi Pangan. 2011;6(1):90-9. https://doi.org/10.25182/jgp.2011.6.1.90-99

Soesilowati E, Indriyanti DR, Widiyanto W. Model corporate social responsibility dalam program pemberdayaan petani hortikultura. J Ekon Pembang. 2011;12(1):102-17. https://doi.org/10.23917/jep.v12i1.209

Koch T, Kralik D. Participatory Action Research in Health Care. Oxford, England: Blackwell Publishing; 2009.

Stringer ET. Action Research. 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks, USA: SAGE Publications; 1999.

Yusuf AM. Metode Penelitian Kuantitatif, Kualitatif, dan Penelitian Gabungan. Jakarta: Prenadamedia Group; 2016.

Mahyuni EL, Harahap U. The health belief model in prevention pesticide toxicity. Glob J Health Sci. 2020;12(6):135-44. https:// doi.org/10.5539/gjhs.v12n6p135

Fan L, Niu H, Yang X, Qin W, Bento CP, Ritsema CJ, et al. Factors affecting farmers’ behaviour in pesticide use: Insights from a field study in Northern China. Sci Total Environ. 2015;537:360-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.07.150 PMid:26282770

Riccò M, Vezzosi L, Gualerzi G. Health and safety of pesticide applicators in a high income agricultural setting: A knowledge, attitude, practice, and toxicity study from North-Eastern Italy. J Prev Med Hyg. 2018;59(3):E200-11. PMid:30397676

Akter M, Fan L, Rahman MM, Geissen V, Ritsema CJ. Vegetable farmers’ behaviour and knowledge related to pesticide use and related health problems: A case study from Bangladesh. J Clean Prod. 2018;200:122-3. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.07.130

Mahyuni EL, Yustina I, Sudaryati E. Safety talk and check to prevent pesticide toxicity among farmer. Int J Public Heal Sci. 2017;6(4):293-8. https://doi.org/10.11591/ijphs.v6i4.9113

Damalas CA, Koutroubas SD. Farmers’ exposure to pesticides: Toxicity types and ways of prevention. Toxics. 2016;4(1):1-10. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics4010001 PMid:29051407

Jallow MF, Awadh DG, Albaho MS, Devi VY, Thomas BM. Pesticide knowledge and safety practices among farm workers in Kuwait: Results of a survey. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017;14(4):340. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14040340 PMid:28338612

Sekiyama M, Tanaka M, Gunawan B, Abdoellah O, Watanabe C. Pesticide usage and its association with health symptoms among farmers in rural villages in West Java, Indonesia. Environ Sci. 2007;14:23-33. PMid:18382412

Mahyuni EL. Faktor risiko dalam penggunaan pestisida terhadap keluhan kesehatan pada petani di kecamatan berastagi kabupaten karo 2014. J Kesmas. 2015;9(1):79-89. https://doi.org/10.12928/kesmas.v9i1.1554

Nurulain MU, Syed Ismail SN, Abidin EZ, How V. Pesticide application, dermal exposure risk and factors influenced distribution on different body parts among agriculture workers. Malays J Public Heal Med. 2017;1:123-32.

Macfarlane E, Carey R, Keegel T, El-Zaemay S, Fritschi L. Dermal exposure associated with occupational end use of pesticides and the role of protective measures. Saf Health Work. 2013;4(3):136-41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.shaw.2013.07.004 PMid:24106643

Mwabulambo SG, Mrema EJ, Ngowi AV, Mamuya S. Health symptoms associated with pesticides exposure among flower and onion pesticide applicators in Arusha Region. Ann Glob Heal. 2018;84(3):369-79. https://doi.org/10.29024/aogh.2303 PMid:30835378

Mahyuni EL, Sinaga MM. Health impact of pesticide using method at sprayed worker farmer in Sumber Mufakat Village, Karo. In: Advances in Health Sciences Research. Switzerland: Atlantis Press; 2017. p. 285-9. https://doi.org/10.2991/phico-16.2017.28

Osang AR, Lampus BS, Wuntu AD. Hubungan antara masa kerja dan arah angin dengan kadar kolinesterase darah pada petani padi pengguna pestisida di desa pangian tengah kecamatan passi timur kabupaten bolaang Mongondow. Pharmacon. 2016;5(2):151-7. https://doi.org/10.35800/jjs.v10i2.25003

Desmarteau DA, Ritter AM, Hendley P, Guevara MW. Impact of wind speed and direction and key meteorological parameters on potential pesticide drift mass loadings from sequential aerial applications. Integr Environ Assess Manag. 2020;16(2):197- 210. https://doi.org/10.1002/ieam.4221 PMid:31589364

Kumari S, Sharma H. The impact of pesticides on farmer’s health: A case study of fruit bowl of Himachal Pradesh. Int J Sci Res. 2014;3(11):144-8.

Sharifzadeh MS, Damalas CA, Abdollahzadeh G. Perceived usefulness of personal protective equipment in pesticide use predicts farmers’ willingness to use it. Sci Total Environ. 2017;609(31):517-23. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.137472 PMid:28755601

Al Zadjali S, Morse S, Chenoweth J, Deadman M. Personal safety issues related to the use of pesticides in agricultural production in the Al-Batinah Region of Northern Oman. Sci Total Environ. 2015;502:457-61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.09.044 PMid:25282255

DellaValle CT, Andreotti G, Alavanja MC, Hoppin JA, Hines CJ. Risk-accepting personality and personal protective equipment use within the agricultural health study. J Agromed. 2012;17(3):264-76. https://doi.org/10.1080/1059924x.2012.686390 PMid:22732067

Yarpuz-Bozdogan N. The importance of personal protective equipment in pesticide applications in agriculture. Curr Opin Environ Sci Heal. 2018;4:1-4.

Bondori A, Bagheri A, Damalas CA, Allahyari MS. Use of personal protective equipment towards pesticide exposure: Farmers’ attitudes and determinants of behavior. Sci Total Environ. 2018;639:1156-63. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.133597

Nurcandra F, Mahkota R, Shivalli S. Effect of personal protective equipment during pesticide application to neurological symptoms in farmers in Purworejo District, Indonesia. Kesmas Natl Public Heal J. 2018;12(4):165-71. https://doi.org/10.21109/kesmas.v12i4.1695

Snelder DJ, Masipiqueña MD, De Snoo GR. risk assessment of pesticide usage by smallholder farmers in the Cagayan Valley (Philippines). Crop Prot. 2008;27(3-5):747-62. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2007.10.011

Damalas CA, Abdollahzadeh G. Farmers’ use of personal protective equipment during handling of plant protection products: Determinants of implementation. Sci Total Environ. 2016;571:730-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.07.042 PMid:27425442

Levesque DL, Arif AA, Shen J. Effectiveness of pesticide safety training and knowledge about pesticide exposure among hispanic farmworkers. J Occup Environ Med. 2012;54(12):1550- 6. https://doi.org/10.1097/jom.0b013e3182677d96 PMid:23169274

Yuantari MG, Van Gestel CA, Van Straalen NM, Widianarko B, Sunoko HR, Shobib MN. Knowledge, attitude, and practice of indonesian farmers regarding the use of personal protective equipment against pesticide exposure. Environ Monit Assess. 2015;187(3):142. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-015-4371-3 PMid:25716528

Wang W, Jin J, He R, Gong H. Gender differences in pesticide use knowledge, risk awareness and practices in Chinese farmers. Sci Total Environ. 2017;590-591:22-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.03.053 PMid:28285132

Rezaei R, Damalas CA, Abdollahzadeh G. Retracted: Understanding farmers’ safety behaviour towards pesticide exposure and other occupational risks: The case of Zanjan, Iran. Sci Total Environ. 2018;616-617:1190-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.137471 PMid:29107371

Saha S, Adhikary M, Gangopadhyay A, Sarkar S, Brahmachari K. Impact of chemical pesticides on environment-a farm level case study. J Interacad. 2016;20(4):452-8.

Kim JH, Kim J, Cha ES, Ko Y, Kim DH, Lee WJ. Work-related risk factors by severity for acute pesticide poisoning among male farmers in South Korea. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2013;10(3):1100-12. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph10031100 PMid:23493034

Bagheri A, Emami N, Allahyari MS, Damalas CA. Pesticide handling practices, health risks, and determinants of safety behavior among Iranian apple farmers. Hum Ecol Risk Assess Int J. 2018;24(8):2209-23. https://doi.org/10.1080/10807039.2018.1443265

Loha KM, Lamoree M, Weiss JM, De Boer J. Import, disposal, and health impacts of pesticides in the East Africa Rift (EAR) zone: A review on management and policy analysis. Crop Prot. 2018;112:322-31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2018.06.014

Ranjan R, Neupane K, Wantamutte AS, Banjade B, Kushwaha N, Neupane R, et al. Practice of pesticides use among the farmers of Kangrali Village in Belgaum-a cross-sectional study. Int J Interdiscip Multidiscip Stud. 2014;1(5):202-7.

Darçın ES, Darçın M. Health effects of agricultural pesticides. Biomed Res. 2017;1:S13-7.

Adriyani R. Usaha pengendalian pencemaran lingkungan akibat penggunaan pestisida pertanian. J Kesehat Lingkung. 2006;3(1):95-106.

Ye M, Beach J, Martin JW, Senthilselvan A. Occupational pesticide exposures and respiratory health. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2013;10(12):6442-71. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph10126442 PMid:24287863

Downloads

Published

2021-01-10

How to Cite

1.
Mahyuni EL, Harahap U, Harahap RH, Nurmaini N. Pesticide Toxicity Prevention in Farmer’s Community Movement. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2021 Jan. 10 [cited 2023 Jan. 26];9(E):1-7. Available from: https://oamjms.eu/index.php/mjms/article/view/5565

Issue

Section

Public Health Education and Training

Categories

Funding data

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>