Prevalence of Work-related Musculoskeletal Symptoms among Dental Students at Ss. Cyril and Methodius University Dental School in Skopje


  • Vasilka Rendzova Department of Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, Faculty of Dental Medicine, University “Ss. Cyril and Methodius,” Skopje, Republic of Macedonia
  • Julijana Nikolovska Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dental Medicine, University “Ss. Cyril and Methodius”, Skopje, Republic of Macedonia
  • Sonja Apostolska Department of Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics, Faculty of Dental Medicine, University “Ss. Cyril and Methodius,” Skopje, Republic of Macedonia
  • Nikola Petričević Department of Removable Prosthodontics, School of Dental Medicine, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Republic of Croatia



Musculoskeletal disorders, Dental students, Ergonomics


AIM: The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal problems in 3rd, 4th, and final year of study in Ss. Cyril and Methodius University Dental School.

METHODS: All 3rd, 4th, and final year regular dental students were invited to take part in the study, which involved completing the extended Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire. This questionnaire facilitates an assessment of troubles (ache, pain, or discomfort) with neck, shoulders, upper back, elbows, wrists/hands, low back, hips/thighs, knees, and ankles/feet.

RESULTS: Out of a maximum possible number of 146 students, 116 agreed to participate and completed the questionnaire (33 males and 83 females). The response rate was 79.5%. The mean age of students was 22.6 years (SD = 1.52), ranging from 20 to 26 years. During the past 12 months, students have problems mostly with neck 48 (41.4%), upper back 43 (37.1%), and low back 43 (37.1%). Working hours/week was 12 h for 3rd year, 20 h for 4th, and 30 h for 5th-year students. There is a significant difference between the students from third study year with these from 4th and 6th study year regarding the neck (χ2 (2)= 6.46, p < 0.05), upper back (χ2 (2) = 7.38, p < 0.05), and low back (χ2 (2)= 13.79, p < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: This study reported high prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms among the dental students. Preventive measures and more ergonomic recommendations are indicated.


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How to Cite

Rendzova V, Nikolovska J, Apostolska S, Petričević N. Prevalence of Work-related Musculoskeletal Symptoms among Dental Students at Ss. Cyril and Methodius University Dental School in Skopje. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2021 Jan. 28 [cited 2023 May 31];9(D):19-23. Available from:





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