Analysis of Smoking Behavior Risk Factors in Adolescent through Health Belief Model Approaches
Keywords:Behavior, Smoking, Teenagers, Health Belief Model (HBM)
BACKGROUND: Teenagers who smoke are very susceptible to product degradation which is seen in the low quality of human resources. Identification of risk factors needed as a first step before health interventions to prevent and reduce smoking rates in adolescents.
AIM: This study aims to analyze the risk factors for smoking behavior in adolescents through the health believe model approach.
METHODS: The design of this study is observational using a cross-sectional approach with the sample size, namely, 156 respondents. The instrument planned to be used in this study is a questionnaire that has been tested for validity and reliability. This study has received permission from relevant parties, including having received approval from the ULM FK Ethics Commission. The variables to be studied are, dependent: Smoking and independent behavior: Gender, knowledge, attitude, parental influence, peer influence, and cigarette advertising. The data analysis used Chi-square test and Fisher’s exact test with a significance level of p < 0.05.
RESULTS: Frequency distribution, 139 (89.1%) respondents do not smoke, 81 (51.9%) respondents were female, 147 (5.8%) respondents are well-informed, and 141 (90.4%) respondents have a positive attitude, the number of respondents who are not affected by the smoking behavior of the elderly is 142 people (91%). Number of respondents who are not affected by peer smoking behaviors is 150 people (96.2%) and 144 people (92.3%) of the respondents were exposed to cigarette advertisements in the high category. Statistical tests show that the variables that have a significant relationship with smoking behavior are gender (p = 0.000), attitude (p = 0.000), parental influence (p = 0.000), and cigarette advertising (p = 0.000).
CONCLUSIONS: There are four variables which have a relationship with smoking behavior, namely, there is a relationship between gender, attitude, the influence of parents, and cigarette advertising with smoking behavior.
Simarmata S. Smoking Behavior among Students at Madrasah Tsanawiyah Negeri Model Kuok, West Bangkinang District, Kampar Regency, Riau Province. Depok: Skripsi, Fakultas Kesehatan Masyarakat Universitas Indonesia; 2012.
Global Youth Tobacco Survey. Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS): Indonesia Report. New Delhi: WHO Regional Office for South, WHO-SEARO; 2014. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2008.08.004
Kusumawardani N, Rachmalina A, Wiryawan Y, Anwar A, Handayani K, Mubasyiroh R. Health Risk Behavior in Junior and Senior High School Students in Indonesia. Jakarta: Badan Litbangkes Kementerian Kesehatan RI; 2015.
Darlianis. Achievement Profile of Student Development Tasks at SMP Negeri 8 Teluk Kuantan. Vol. 2. Suara Guru: Jurnal Ilmu Pendidikan Sosial, Sains, dan Humaniora; 2016.
Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Republik Indonesia, Permendikbud Nomor 14 Tahun 2018 tentang Penerimaan Peserta Didik Baru Tahun; 2018. https://doi.org/10.35315/ dh.v24i1.8325
Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. National Basic Health Research Report (Riskesdas). Jakarta: Badan Litbangkes, Depkes RI; 2018.
Hidayat T, Wiarsih W, Mulyono S. Analysis of Factors Related to Smoking Behavior in Nursing Students in the Province of South Kalimantan. Depok: Tesis, Fakultas Keperawatan Universitas Indonesia; 2012.
Glanz K, Rimer BK, Viswanath K. Health Behavior and Health Education: Theory, Research, and Practice. New York: John Wiley and Sons; 2008.
Orji R, Vassileva J, Mandryk R. Towards an effective health interventions design: an extension of the health belief model. Online J Public Health Inform. 20121;4(3):4321. https://doi.org/10.5210/ojphi.v4i3.4321 PMid:23569653
Rachmat M, Thaha RM, Syafar M. Adolescent smoking behavior in junior high school. Kesmas. 2013;7(11):363.
Alamsyah A, Nopianto N. Determinants of smoking behavior in adolescents. J Endurance. 2017;2(1):1372.
Ridwan R. Easy Learning Research for Teacher-employees and Beginner Researchers. Bandung: Alfabeta; 2010.
Sawyer SM, Afifi RA, Bearinger LH, Blakemore SJ, Dick B, Ezeh AC, et al. Adolescence: A foundation for future health. Lancet. 2012;379(9826):1630-40. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(12)60072-5 PMid:22538178
Ciranka S, van den Bos W. Social influence in adolescent decision-making: A formal framework. Front Psychol. 2019;10:1915. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01915 PMid:31555164
Abrantes AM, Lee CS, MacPherson L, Strong DR, Borrelli B, Brown RA. Health risk behaviors in relation to making a smoking quit attempt among adolescents. J Behav Med. 2009;32(2):142- 9. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10865-008-9184-1 PMid:19003525
Wijayanti E, Dewi C. Factors related to smoking behavior in adolescents in Kampung Bojong Rawalele, Jatimakmur, Bekasi. Glob Med Health Commun. 2017;5(3):194-8. https://doi.org/10.29313/gmhc.v5i3.2298
WWidianti. Factors Related to Smoking Behavior of Students of SMP Negeri “X” in Bogor City. Jakarta: Skripsi, Universitas Indonesia; 2014.
Notoatmodjo S. Education and Health Behavior. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta; 2003.
Rahmadi A, Lestari Y, Yenita Y. The relationship between knowledge and attitudes toward cigarettes and smoking habits of junior high school students in Padang city. J Kesehatan Andalas. 2013;2(1):62.
Friedman MM. Family Nursing: Research, Theory and Practice. Upper Saddle Rive: Prentice Hall; 2003.
Azizah N. Factors Related to Smoking Behavior of Street Children in Makassar City. Makassar: Skripsi, Universitas Hasanuddin; 2013.
Kumboyono. The Relationship between Smoking Behavior and Learning Motivation of Adolescents at SMK Bina Bangsa Malang. Brawijaya: Artikel Ilmiah Majalah Kesehatan Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Brawijaya; 2010. Available from: https:// www.e-jurnal.com/2013/10/hubungan-perilaku-merokok-dan-motivasi.html [Last accessed on 2020 Dec 12]. https://doi.org/10.18202/jam230263188.8.131.52
Afif AN, Astuti K. The relationship between perceptions of cigarette advertising and smoking behavior in adolescents. Insight: J Ilmiah Psikol. 2015;17(1):1-10.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Vina Yulia Anhar, Syamsul Arifin, Fauzie Rahman, Agus Muhammad Ridwan, Bohari Bohari (Author)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
All rights reserved.