Relationship between family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus and knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding type 2 diabetes mellitus among medical students


  • Jilan Fachirah Department of Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia
  • Mutiara Indah Sari Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia



T2DM, family history, Knowledge, Attitude, Practice



BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a condition of increase in blood glucose levels, due to impaired synthesis and/or secretion of insulin. Family history of DM is one of the non-modifiable risk factors for someone to suffering DM. Individual knowledge, attitude, and practice towards DM also affects a person to suffering DM.

AIM: This study aims to determine the relationship between family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding T2DM among medical students at the Universitas Sumatera Utara.

METHODS: This study was an online questionnaire-based observational study. It was involved 370 medical students from batches of 2017, 2018, and 2019 at the Universitas Sumatera Utara during the period from April-October 2020. Data was collected using a questionnaire containing questions and statements regarding knowledge, attitude, and practice of respondents towards T2DM. The questionnaire also contains questions about respondents' family history of T2DM. The relationship between family history of T2DM and knowledge, attitude, and practice toward T2DM among medical students in the Universitas Sumatera Utara were analyzed using the Chi Square test, with SPSS version 24.

RESULTS: From the 370 Universitas Sumatera Utara medical students were being respondents in this study, it was shown that good and poor knowledge scores toward T2DM were 50.8% and 49.2% respectively. The attitude scores were 53.5% and 46.5% respectively. The practice scores were 47.8% and 52.2% respectively. There were 197 students (53.2%) who have a family history of suffering from T2DM and 173 students (46.8%) did not have. The results of the analysis test between data showed that there was a significant relationship between a family history of T2DM with knowledge of T2DM (p = 0.002, RP = 1.921, 95% CI = 1.270-2.906), attitudes (p = 0.005, RP = 1.815, 95% CI = 1.200-2.745) and practice (p = 0.001, RP = 2.092, 95% CI = 1.380-3.173).

CONCLUSION: In this study it is shown that the medical students have good knowledge and attitudes towards T2DM but it’s not in line with practice. A family history of T2DM is a factor that influences behavior, attitude, and practice towards T2DM in medical students at the Universitas Sumatera Utara.



Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...

Plum Analytics Artifact Widget Block


Saeedi P, Salpea P, Karuranga S, Petersohn I, Malanda B, Gregg EW, et al. Mortality attributable to diabetes in 20-79 years old adults, 2019 estimates: Results from the international diabetes federation diabetes atlas, 9th edition. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2020;162:108086. PMid:32068099

World Health Organization. Global Report on Diabetes. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2016. Available from: [Last accessed on 2020 Jul 10].

Powers AC. Diabetes Mellitus, Obesity, Lipoprotein Metabolisms in Harrison’s Endocrinology. 4th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Education; 2017. p. 280-291.

Perkumpulan Endokrinologi Indonesia (Perkeni). Konsensus Pengelolaan dan Pencegahan Diabetes Melitus Tipe 2 di Indonesia 2015. Pengurus Besar Perkumpulan Endokrinologi Indonesia (PB Perkeni). The Indonesian Association of Endocrinologists.Consensus for the Management and Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Indonesia 2015. Executive Board of the Indonesian Endocrinology Association; 2015. Available from: https://www.pbperkeni. dan-Pencegahan-Diabetes-melitus-tipe-2-di-Indonesia PERKENI-2015.pdf. [Last accessed on 2020 Jul 10].

Notoadmojo, S. Promosi Kesehatan dan Perilaku Kesehatan. (Health Promotion and Health Behavior). Jakarta: PT Rineka Cipta; 2014. p. 15-8, 146.

Herath HM, Weerasinghe NP, Dias H, Weerarathna TP. Knowledge, attitude and practice related to diabetes mellitus among the general public ingalle district in Southern Sri Lanka: A pilot study. BMC Public Health. 2017;17:535. PMid:28571566

Wolde M, Berhe N, Die IV, Medhin G, Tsegaye A. Knowledge and practice on prevention of diabetes mellitus among diabetes mellitus family members, in Suburban cities in Ethiopia. BMC Res Notes. 2017;10:551. PMid:29096704

Donny A, Naa-Solo T, Shinga F. The influence of family history of Type 2 diabetes mellitus on positive health behavior changes among African americans. Int J Chronic Dis. 2020;2020:8016542. PMid:32090059

Hartini S. Tingkat Pengetahuan, Sikap, dan Tindakan Masyarakat Kecamatan Tanjung Tiram tentang Diabetes Melitus’ Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of the Community of Tanjung Tiram Subdistrict on Diabetes Mellitus; 2017. Available from: [Last accessed on 2020 Jul 15].

Tabák AG, Herder C, Rathmann W, Brunner EJ, Kivimäki M. Prediabetes: A high-risk state for diabetes development. Lancet. 2012;379:2279-90. PMid:22683128

Mumu JS, Saleh F, Ara F, Haque RM, Ali L. Awareness regarding risk factors of Type 2 diabetes among individuals attending a tertiary-care hospital in Bangladesh: A crosssectional study. BMC Res Notes. 2014;7:599. PMid:25187113

Alsous M, Jalil MA, Odeh M, Al Kurdi R, Alnan M. Public knowledge, attitudes and practices toward diabetes mellitus: A crosssectional study from Jordan. PLoS One. 2019;14(3):e0214479. PMid:30925187

Kassahun CW, Mekonen AG. Knowledge, attitude, practices and their associated factors towards diabetes mellitus among non diabetes community members of Bale Zone administrative towns, South East Ethiopia. A crosssectional study. PLoS One. 2017;12(2):e0170040. PMid:28152066

Daba A, Yazew T. Associated factors with knowledge, attitude and practices of Type II diabetic patients in Ambo university referral hospital, Ethiopia. Am J Lab Med. 2020;5(4):102-12.

Powers AC. Diabetes mellitus. In: Longo DL, Kasper DL, Jameson JL, Fauci AS, Hauser SL, Loscalzo J, editors. Harrison’s Endocrinology. 3rd ed. United States: McGraw-Hill Education; 2013. p. 261-307.

Jaesung C, Ji-Yeob C, Sang-Ah L, Kyoung-Mu L Aesun S, Juhwan O, et al. Association between family history of diabetes and clusters of adherence to healthy behaviors. Br Med J. 2019;9(6):3-11.

Choi J, Choi J, Lee S, Lee KM, Shin A, Oh J, et al. Association between family history of diabetes and clusters of adherence to healthy behaviors: Cross-sectional results from the health examinees-gem (HEXA-G) study. BMJ Open. 2019;9:e025477. PMid:31209083

Harrison TA, Hindorff LA, Kim H, Wines RC, Bowen DJ, McGrath BB, et al. Family history of diabetes as a potential public health tool. Am J Prev Med. 2003;24(2):152-9. PMid:12568821

Meigs JB, Cupples LA, Wilson PW. Parental transmission of Type 2 diabetes: The Framingham offspring study. Diabetes. 2000;49:2201-7. PMid:1111802



2021-03-08 — Updated on 2021-03-08


How to Cite

Fachirah J, Sari MI. Relationship between family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus and knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding type 2 diabetes mellitus among medical students. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2021 Mar. 8 [cited 2024 Jul. 24];9(E):161-6. Available from:



Public Health Epidemiology


Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>