Preparedness Assessment of Physicians during Coronavirus Disease-19 Pandemic: A Cross-sectional Study


  • Eman Moawad Elhabashi Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
  • Reham Farouk Tawfik Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
  • Fatma Maamoun Abou-Hashima Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
  • Arwa Mohamed El Shafei Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt
  • Fayrouz El-Aguizy Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt



Infection prevention and control, Coronavirus disease-19, Knowledge, attitudes, and practice, Health care workers


BACKGROUND: Since first confirmed case of coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 in December 2019 by Chinese health authorities and subsequent World Health Organization (WHO) declaration that COVID-19 is a global public health crisis, radical changes have occurred all over the world associating massive lockdown with increased numbers of infected cases and related mortalities. As health care workers (HCWs) are at a great risk to get COVID-19 infection and hence can be a dangerous source of spreading it to the community, it was important to assess HCWs knowledge, attitude, and practice toward COVID-19 infection prevention and control (IPC) to help limit the outcomes of COVID-19.

AIM: The objectives of the study were to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of physicians regarding COVID-19 IPC.

METHODS: Research setting is “Kasr Al-Ainy” Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University Hospital. Design: A cross-sectional analytical observational hospital-based research in June 2020. Population: A convenient sample of 50 physicians working at Cairo University Hospital was included. Data collection: Self-administered questionnaires derived from the WHO IPC guide during health care when COVID-19 is suspected were used.

RESULTS: Mean age of studied group was 30.5 ± 3.97, while their mean years of practice were 4.7 ± 3.55. Mean knowledge score among physicians was 5.6 (± 0.56), two-thirds of them had sufficient knowledge regarding COVID-19 IPC as their mean attitude score among 24.9 (± 2.8). While mean practice scores 5.6 (± 1.05), yet only 68% of the participating physicians use a new set of personal protective equipment when care is given to a different patient.

CONCLUSION: Physician’s moderate knowledge, poor attitude, and modest practice toward COVID-19 IPC were found to be not sufficient, not favorable nor safe enough to expected standards.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...


World Health Organization. Listings of WHO’s Response to COVID-19. Available from: 06-2020-covidtimeline. [Last assessed on 2020 Apr 17].

World Health Organization COVID-2019 Situation Report-26; 2020. Available from: coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200215-sitrep-26-covid-19. pdf?sfvrsn=a4cc6787_2. [Last assessed on 2020 Apr 18].

Hassany M, Abdel-Razek W, Asem N, AbdAllah M, Zaid H. Estimation of COVID-19 burden in Egypt. Lancet Infect Dis. 2020;20(8):896-7. PMid:32353346

Daily Report on COVID-19 by Egyptian Ministry of Health and Population. Available from: [Last accessed on 2020 Jun 01].

Daily Report on COVID-19 by Egyptian Ministry of Health and Population. Available from: [Last accessed on 2020 Jul 10].

World Health Organization. Transmission of SARS-CoV-2: Implications for Infection Prevention Precautions; 2020. Available from: detail/transmission-of-sars-cov-2-implications-for-infectionpreventionprecautions#:~:text=Current%20evidence%20 suggests%20that%20transmission,%2C%20talks%20or%20 sings. [Last accessed on 2020 Jul 09].

Xu K, Lai X, Liu Z. Suggestions on the prevention of COVID19 for health care workers in department of otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery. World J Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2020;6(Suppl 1):S2-5. PMid:32292630

Martin C, Montesinos I, Dauby N. Dynamics of SARSCoV-2 RT-PCR positivity and seroprevalence among highrisk healthcare workers and hospital staff. J Hosp Infect. 2020;106(1):102-6. PMid:32593608

Liu Y, Yan LM, Wan L, Xiang TX, Le A, Liu JM, et al. Viral dynamics in mild and severe cases of COVID-19. Lancet Infect Dis. 2020;20(6):656-7. PMid:32199493

Nguyen LH, Drew DA, Joshi AD, Guo CG, Ma W, Mehta RS, et al. Risk of COVID-19 among frontline healthcare workers and the general community: A prospective cohort study. medRxiv. 2020.04.29.20084111; doi: 0084111. PMid:32511531

Jewett C, Bailey M, Renwick D. Exclusive: Nearly 600-and Counting-US Health Workers Have Died Of COVID-19: Kaiser Health News; 2020. Available from: exclusive-investigation-nearly-600-and-counting-us-healthworkers-have-died-of-covid-19. [Last accessed on 2020 Jul 21].

Chou R, Dana T, Buckley DI. Epidemiology of and risk factors for coronavirus infection in health care workers: A living rapid review. Ann Intern Med. 2020;173(2):120-36. PMid:32369541

Ran L, Chen X, Wang Y, Wu W, Zhang L, Tan X. Risk factors of healthcare workers with coronavirus disease 2019: A retrospective cohort study in a designated hospital of Wuhan in China. Clin Infect Dis. 2020;71(16):2218-21. Elhabashi et al. Prepar PMid:32179890

Wu Z, McGoogan JM. Characteristics of and important lessons from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in China: Summary of a report of 72 314 cases from the Chinese Center for disease control and prevention. JAMA. 2020;323(13):1239-42. PMid:32091533

Omrani AS, Shalhoub S. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV): What lessons can we learn? J Hosp Infect. 2015;91(3):188-96. PMid:26452615

McEachan R, Taylor N, Harrison R, Lawton R, Gardner P, Conner M. Meta-analysis of the reasoned action approach (RAA) to understanding health behaviors. Ann Behav Med. 2016;50(4):592-612. PMid:27169555

Joob B, Wiwanitkit V. Traumatization in medical staff helping with COVID-19 control. Brain Behav Immun. 2020;87:10. PMid:32205120

Montemurro N. The emotional impact of COVID-19: From medical staff to common people. Brain Behav Immun. 2020;87:23-4. PMid:32240766

Sarafis P, Rousaki E, Tsounis A, Malliarou M, Lahana L, Bamidis P, et al. The impact of occupational stress on nurses’ caring behaviors and their health related quality of life. BMC Nurs. 2020;15:56.

Wagner A, Hammer A, Manser T, Martus P, Sturm H, Rieger MA. Do occupational and patient safety culture in hospitals share predictors in the field of psychosocial working conditions? Findings from a cross-sectional study in German University Hospitals. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018;15(10):2131. PMid:30262790

Chirico F, Magnavita N. COVID-19 infection in Italy: An occupational injury. S Afr Med J. 2020;110(6):12944. PMid:32880541

World Health Organization. Infection Prevention and Control during Health Care when COVID-19 is Suspected: Interim Guidance. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2020. Available from: [Last accessed on 2020 May 28].

Chirico F, Nucera G, Magnavita N. COVID-19: Protecting healthcare workers is a priority. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2020;41(9):1117. PMid:32299519

Seid MA, Hussen MS. Knowledge and attitude towards antimicrobial resistance among final year undergraduate paramedical students at University of Gondar, Ethiopia. BMC Infect Dis. 2018;18(1):312. PMid:29980174

Egyptian Statistics. Available from: EgyptCare/index.aspx. [Last accessed on 2020 Sep 20].

Egyptian Street, 117,000 COVID-19 Cases in Egypt Say Estimates: Minister. Available from: https://www.egyptianstreets. com/2020/06/01/100000-covid-19-cases-in-egypt-sayestimates-minister. [Last accessed on 2020 Sep 20].

Available from: [Last accessed on 2020 Aug 17].

Wahed WY, Hefzy EM, Ahmed MI, Hamed NS. Assessment of knowledge, attitudes, and perception of health care workers regarding COVID-19, a cross-sectional study from Egypt. J Community Health. 2020;45(6):1242-51. PMid:32638199

Huynh G, Nguyen TN, Tran VK, Vo KN, Vo VT, Pham LA. Knowledge and attitude toward COVID-19 among healthcare workers at District 2 Hospital, Ho Chi Minh City. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2020;13(6):260-5.

Alshammari E, Alsaleh N, Alshammari A, Alsharif A, Alsaleh A, Alhamed M, et al. COVID-19 awareness in Kuwaiti hospitals. Mil Med Sci Lett. 2020;89(3):142-50.

Acharya A, Thapa P, Shrestha RM, Shrestha S, Gupta A. Knowledge, attitude and practice of Nepali medical and dental practitioners on infection control during Covid-19 Pandemic. Orthod J Nepal. 2020;10(2):29-35.

Bhagavathula AS, Aldhaleei WA, Rahmani J, Mahabadi MA, Bandari DK. Novel coronavirus (COVID19) knowledge and perceptions: A survey of healthcare workers. medRxiv. 2020.03.09.20033381.

Rabbani U, Al Saigul AM. Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Health Care Workers about Corona Virus Disease 2019 in Saudi Arabia. J Epidemiol Glob Health. 2020 Aug 28. doi: 10.2991/jegh.k.200819.002. Epub ahead of print. PMid:32959614

Olum R, Chekwech G, Wekha G, Nassozi DR, Bongomin F. Coronavirus disease-2019: Knowledge, attitude, and practices of health care workers at Makerere University Teaching Hospitals, Uganda. Front Public Health. 2020;8:181. PMid:32426320

Alrubaiee GG, Al-Qalah TA, Al-Aawar MS. Knowledge, attitudes, anxiety, and preventive behaviours towards COVID-19 among health care providers in Yemen: An online cross-sectional survey. BMC Public Health. 2020;20(1):1541. PMid:33050896

Asemahagn MA. Factors determining the knowledge and prevention practice of healthcare workers towards COVID-19 in Amhara Region, Ethiopia: A cross-sectional survey. Trop Med Health. 2020;48:72.

Tamang N, Rai S, Dhungana S, Rai P, Sherchan B, Shah B. COVID-19: A national survey on perceived level of knowledge, attitude and practice among frontline medical professionals in Nepal. BMC Public Health. 2020;20(1):1-10.

Maleki S, Najafi F, Farhadi K, Fakhri M, Hosseini F, Naderi M. Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior of Health Care Workers in the Prevention of COVID-19. Durham: Research Square; 2020. p. 203.

Papagiannis D, Malli F, Raptis DG, Papathanasiou IV, Fradelos EC, Daniil Z, et al. Assessment of knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) of health care professionals in Greece before the outbreak period. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(14):4925. PMid:32650614

Kumar H, Khurana MS, Charan GS, Sharma NK. Knowledge and perception of health professionals towards COVID-19. Int J Health Sci Res. 2020;10(7):123-9.

Elhadi M, Msherghi A, Alkeelani M, Zorgani A, Zaid A, Alsuyihili A, et al. Assessment of healthcare workers’ levels of preparedness and awareness regarding COVID-19 Infection in low-resource settings. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020;103(2):828-33. PMid:32563273

Afulani P, Gyamerah A, Aborigo R, Nutor J, Malechi H, Laar A, et al. Perceived preparedness to respond to the COVID-19 pandemic: A study with healthcare workers in Ghana. J Glob Health Sci. 2020;2(2):e24.

Ayinde O, Usman AB, Aduroja P. A Cross-sectional Study on Oyo State Health Care Workers Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Regarding Corona Virus Disease 2019(COVID-19). Durham: Research Square; 2020.

Reddy SC, Valderrama AL, Kuhar DT. Improving the use of personal protective equipment: Applying lessons learned. Clin Infect Dis. 2019;69(Suppl 3):S165-70. PMid:31517978

Zhang A, Zhou A, Tang Y. Knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding COVID-19 among healthcare workers in Henan, China. J Hosp Infect. 2020;105(2):183-7. PMid:32278701




How to Cite

Elhabashi EM, Tawfik RF, Abou-Hashima FM, El Shafei AM, El-Aguizy F. Preparedness Assessment of Physicians during Coronavirus Disease-19 Pandemic: A Cross-sectional Study. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2021 Feb. 24 [cited 2021 May 9];9(E):179-86. Available from:



Public Health Epidemiology