Preparedness Assessment of Physicians during Coronavirus Disease-19 Pandemic: A Cross-sectional Study
Keywords:Infection prevention and control, Coronavirus disease-19, Knowledge, attitudes, and practice, Health care workers
BACKGROUND: Since first confirmed case of coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 in December 2019 by Chinese health authorities and subsequent World Health Organization (WHO) declaration that COVID-19 is a global public health crisis, radical changes have occurred all over the world associating massive lockdown with increased numbers of infected cases and related mortalities. As health care workers (HCWs) are at a great risk to get COVID-19 infection and hence can be a dangerous source of spreading it to the community, it was important to assess HCWs knowledge, attitude, and practice toward COVID-19 infection prevention and control (IPC) to help limit the outcomes of COVID-19.
AIM: The objectives of the study were to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of physicians regarding COVID-19 IPC.
METHODS: Research setting is “Kasr Al-Ainy” Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University Hospital. Design: A cross-sectional analytical observational hospital-based research in June 2020. Population: A convenient sample of 50 physicians working at Cairo University Hospital was included. Data collection: Self-administered questionnaires derived from the WHO IPC guide during health care when COVID-19 is suspected were used.
RESULTS: Mean age of studied group was 30.5 ± 3.97, while their mean years of practice were 4.7 ± 3.55. Mean knowledge score among physicians was 5.6 (± 0.56), two-thirds of them had sufficient knowledge regarding COVID-19 IPC as their mean attitude score among 24.9 (± 2.8). While mean practice scores 5.6 (± 1.05), yet only 68% of the participating physicians use a new set of personal protective equipment when care is given to a different patient.
CONCLUSION: Physician’s moderate knowledge, poor attitude, and modest practice toward COVID-19 IPC were found to be not sufficient, not favorable nor safe enough to expected standards.
World Health Organization. Listings of WHO’s Response to COVID-19. Available from: https://www.who.int/news/item/29- 06-2020-covidtimeline. [Last assessed on 2020 Apr 17].
World Health Organization COVID-2019 Situation Report-26; 2020. Available from: https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/ coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200215-sitrep-26-covid-19. pdf?sfvrsn=a4cc6787_2. [Last assessed on 2020 Apr 18].
Hassany M, Abdel-Razek W, Asem N, AbdAllah M, Zaid H. Estimation of COVID-19 burden in Egypt. Lancet Infect Dis. 2020;20(8):896-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1473-3099(20)30319-4 PMid:32353346
Daily Report on COVID-19 by Egyptian Ministry of Health and Population. Available from: https://www.facebook.com/egypt.mohp/photos/a.123442675873020/177239867159967. [Last accessed on 2020 Jun 01].
Daily Report on COVID-19 by Egyptian Ministry of Health and Population. Available from: https://www.facebook.com/egypt.mohp/photos/a.123442675873020/196941851856435. [Last accessed on 2020 Jul 10].
World Health Organization. Transmission of SARS-CoV-2: Implications for Infection Prevention Precautions; 2020. Available from: https://www.who.int/news-room/commentaries/ detail/transmission-of-sars-cov-2-implications-for-infectionpreventionprecautions#:~:text=Current%20evidence%20 suggests%20that%20transmission,%2C%20talks%20or%20 sings. [Last accessed on 2020 Jul 09].
Xu K, Lai X, Liu Z. Suggestions on the prevention of COVID19 for health care workers in department of otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery. World J Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2020;6(Suppl 1):S2-5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wjorl.2020.03.002 PMid:32292630
Martin C, Montesinos I, Dauby N. Dynamics of SARSCoV-2 RT-PCR positivity and seroprevalence among highrisk healthcare workers and hospital staff. J Hosp Infect. 2020;106(1):102-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhin.2020.06.028 PMid:32593608
Liu Y, Yan LM, Wan L, Xiang TX, Le A, Liu JM, et al. Viral dynamics in mild and severe cases of COVID-19. Lancet Infect Dis. 2020;20(6):656-7. PMid:32199493
Nguyen LH, Drew DA, Joshi AD, Guo CG, Ma W, Mehta RS, et al. Risk of COVID-19 among frontline healthcare workers and the general community: A prospective cohort study. medRxiv. 2020.04.29.20084111; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.04.29.2 0084111. PMid:32511531
Jewett C, Bailey M, Renwick D. Exclusive: Nearly 600-and Counting-US Health Workers Have Died Of COVID-19: Kaiser Health News; 2020. Available from: https://www.khn.org/news/ exclusive-investigation-nearly-600-and-counting-us-healthworkers-have-died-of-covid-19. [Last accessed on 2020 Jul 21]. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m1621
Chou R, Dana T, Buckley DI. Epidemiology of and risk factors for coronavirus infection in health care workers: A living rapid review. Ann Intern Med. 2020;173(2):120-36. PMid:32369541
Ran L, Chen X, Wang Y, Wu W, Zhang L, Tan X. Risk factors of healthcare workers with coronavirus disease 2019: A retrospective cohort study in a designated hospital of Wuhan in China. Clin Infect Dis. 2020;71(16):2218-21. https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa287 Elhabashi et al. Prepar PMid:32179890
Wu Z, McGoogan JM. Characteristics of and important lessons from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in China: Summary of a report of 72 314 cases from the Chinese Center for disease control and prevention. JAMA. 2020;323(13):1239-42. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.2648 PMid:32091533
Omrani AS, Shalhoub S. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV): What lessons can we learn? J Hosp Infect. 2015;91(3):188-96. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhin.2015.08.002 PMid:26452615
McEachan R, Taylor N, Harrison R, Lawton R, Gardner P, Conner M. Meta-analysis of the reasoned action approach (RAA) to understanding health behaviors. Ann Behav Med. 2016;50(4):592-612. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12160-016-9798-4 PMid:27169555
Joob B, Wiwanitkit V. Traumatization in medical staff helping with COVID-19 control. Brain Behav Immun. 2020;87:10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2020.03.020 PMid:32205120
Montemurro N. The emotional impact of COVID-19: From medical staff to common people. Brain Behav Immun. 2020;87:23-4. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2020.03.032 PMid:32240766
Sarafis P, Rousaki E, Tsounis A, Malliarou M, Lahana L, Bamidis P, et al. The impact of occupational stress on nurses’ caring behaviors and their health related quality of life. BMC Nurs. 2020;15:56. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12912-016-0178-y
Wagner A, Hammer A, Manser T, Martus P, Sturm H, Rieger MA. Do occupational and patient safety culture in hospitals share predictors in the field of psychosocial working conditions? Findings from a cross-sectional study in German University Hospitals. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018;15(10):2131. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15102131 PMid:30262790
Chirico F, Magnavita N. COVID-19 infection in Italy: An occupational injury. S Afr Med J. 2020;110(6):12944. PMid:32880541
World Health Organization. Infection Prevention and Control during Health Care when COVID-19 is Suspected: Interim Guidance. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2020. Available from: https://www.apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/331495. [Last accessed on 2020 May 28]. https://doi.org/10.15557/pimr.2020.0003
Chirico F, Nucera G, Magnavita N. COVID-19: Protecting healthcare workers is a priority. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2020;41(9):1117. https://doi.org/10.1017/ice.2020.148 PMid:32299519
Seid MA, Hussen MS. Knowledge and attitude towards antimicrobial resistance among final year undergraduate paramedical students at University of Gondar, Ethiopia. BMC Infect Dis. 2018;18(1):312. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-018-3199-1 PMid:29980174
Egyptian Statistics. Available from: https://www.care.gov.eg/ EgyptCare/index.aspx. [Last accessed on 2020 Sep 20].
Egyptian Street, 117,000 COVID-19 Cases in Egypt Say Estimates: Minister. Available from: https://www.egyptianstreets. com/2020/06/01/100000-covid-19-cases-in-egypt-sayestimates-minister. [Last accessed on 2020 Sep 20].
Available from: https://www.ems.org.eg. [Last accessed on 2020 Aug 17].
Wahed WY, Hefzy EM, Ahmed MI, Hamed NS. Assessment of knowledge, attitudes, and perception of health care workers regarding COVID-19, a cross-sectional study from Egypt. J Community Health. 2020;45(6):1242-51. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10900-020-00882-0 PMid:32638199
Huynh G, Nguyen TN, Tran VK, Vo KN, Vo VT, Pham LA. Knowledge and attitude toward COVID-19 among healthcare workers at District 2 Hospital, Ho Chi Minh City. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2020;13(6):260-5. https://doi.org/10.4103/1995-7645.280396
Alshammari E, Alsaleh N, Alshammari A, Alsharif A, Alsaleh A, Alhamed M, et al. COVID-19 awareness in Kuwaiti hospitals. Mil Med Sci Lett. 2020;89(3):142-50. https://doi.org/10.31482/mmsl.2020.016
Acharya A, Thapa P, Shrestha RM, Shrestha S, Gupta A. Knowledge, attitude and practice of Nepali medical and dental practitioners on infection control during Covid-19 Pandemic. Orthod J Nepal. 2020;10(2):29-35. https://doi.org/10.3126/ojn.v10i2.31065
Bhagavathula AS, Aldhaleei WA, Rahmani J, Mahabadi MA, Bandari DK. Novel coronavirus (COVID19) knowledge and perceptions: A survey of healthcare workers. medRxiv. 2020.03.09.20033381. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.03.09.20033381
Rabbani U, Al Saigul AM. Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Health Care Workers about Corona Virus Disease 2019 in Saudi Arabia. J Epidemiol Glob Health. 2020 Aug 28. doi: 10.2991/jegh.k.200819.002. Epub ahead of print. https://doi.org/10.2991/jegh.k.200819.002 PMid:32959614
Olum R, Chekwech G, Wekha G, Nassozi DR, Bongomin F. Coronavirus disease-2019: Knowledge, attitude, and practices of health care workers at Makerere University Teaching Hospitals, Uganda. Front Public Health. 2020;8:181. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2020.00181 PMid:32426320
Alrubaiee GG, Al-Qalah TA, Al-Aawar MS. Knowledge, attitudes, anxiety, and preventive behaviours towards COVID-19 among health care providers in Yemen: An online cross-sectional survey. BMC Public Health. 2020;20(1):1541. https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-32387/v4 PMid:33050896
Asemahagn MA. Factors determining the knowledge and prevention practice of healthcare workers towards COVID-19 in Amhara Region, Ethiopia: A cross-sectional survey. Trop Med Health. 2020;48:72. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41182-020-00254-3
Tamang N, Rai S, Dhungana S, Rai P, Sherchan B, Shah B. COVID-19: A national survey on perceived level of knowledge, attitude and practice among frontline medical professionals in Nepal. BMC Public Health. 2020;20(1):1-10. https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-40299/v1
Maleki S, Najafi F, Farhadi K, Fakhri M, Hosseini F, Naderi M. Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior of Health Care Workers in the Prevention of COVID-19. Durham: Research Square; 2020. p. 203. https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-23113/v1
Papagiannis D, Malli F, Raptis DG, Papathanasiou IV, Fradelos EC, Daniil Z, et al. Assessment of knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) of health care professionals in Greece before the outbreak period. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(14):4925. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17144925 PMid:32650614
Kumar H, Khurana MS, Charan GS, Sharma NK. Knowledge and perception of health professionals towards COVID-19. Int J Health Sci Res. 2020;10(7):123-9.
Elhadi M, Msherghi A, Alkeelani M, Zorgani A, Zaid A, Alsuyihili A, et al. Assessment of healthcare workers’ levels of preparedness and awareness regarding COVID-19 Infection in low-resource settings. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020;103(2):828-33. https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.20-0330 PMid:32563273
Afulani P, Gyamerah A, Aborigo R, Nutor J, Malechi H, Laar A, et al. Perceived preparedness to respond to the COVID-19 pandemic: A study with healthcare workers in Ghana. J Glob Health Sci. 2020;2(2):e24. https://doi.org/10.35500/jghs.2020.2.e24
Ayinde O, Usman AB, Aduroja P. A Cross-sectional Study on Oyo State Health Care Workers Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Regarding Corona Virus Disease 2019(COVID-19). Durham: Research Square; 2020. https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-23501/v1
Reddy SC, Valderrama AL, Kuhar DT. Improving the use of personal protective equipment: Applying lessons learned. Clin Infect Dis. 2019;69(Suppl 3):S165-70. https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz619 PMid:31517978
Zhang A, Zhou A, Tang Y. Knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding COVID-19 among healthcare workers in Henan, China. J Hosp Infect. 2020;105(2):183-7. PMid:32278701
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Eman Moawad Elhabashi, Reham Farouk Tawfik, Fatma Maamoun Abou-Hashima (Author); Arwa Mohamed El Shafei; Fayrouz El-Aguizy (Author)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
All rights reserved.