The Social-environmental Risk Factor for Conjunctivitis


  • Lilis Suryani Department of Microbiology, Medical Science and Health Faculty, Universitas Muhammadiyah, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
  • Yunani Setyandriana Department of Eye, Medical Science and Health Faculty, Universitas Muhammadiyah, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
  • Nur Shani Meida Department of Eye, Medical Science and Health Faculty, Universitas Muhammadiyah, Yogyakarta, Indonesia



Conjunctivitis, Risk factor, Demographics, River, Temporary garbage dump


BACKGROUND: Conjunctivitis is one of the most common eye disorders in the worldwide. The incidence of conjunctivitis in Indonesia reached 73% of the population. Conjunctivitis cases in Yogyakarta City have increased from year to year.

AIM: This study purposed to identify the social-environmental risk factors that influence the incidence of conjunctivitis in Yogyakarta.

METHODS: Design study was an observational analytic method with a case–control research design. The population study was all the patients visited at the Eye Clinic of PKU Muhammadiyah Gamping Hospital and private hospital Yogyakarta in 2019. The total sample is 204 respondents who were divided into case and control. One hundred and four respondents were in a case while 100 were controlled. The case was a conjunctivitis patient treated at the Eye Clinic of PKU Muhammadiyah Gamping Hospital and private hospital Yogyakarta in 2019, while the control was a non-conjunctivitis patient who went to the same two hospitals as the case respondent. Data were collected by direct interviews using a structured questionnaire covering the respondents’ demographics and social-environmental conditions. Then, the data were analyzed using SPSS 15.0 univariate and bivariate using Chi-square.

RESULTS: The results of the bivariate analysis showed that age, the distance between the house and the river, the distance between the place and the temporary garbage dump, contacted from a close friend, the windows of the house were always opened every day as risk factors affecting the incidence of conjunctivitis.

CONCLUSION: The study’s decision is the social-environmental as a risk factor for conjunctivitis in Yogyakarta.


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How to Cite

Suryani L, Setyandriana Y, Meida NS. The Social-environmental Risk Factor for Conjunctivitis. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2021 Sep. 20 [cited 2024 Apr. 21];9(T4):319-23. Available from: