The Physical Fitness Level, Heart Rate, and Heart Rate Recovery among Adolescent Smokers and Non-smokers


  • Nurvita Risdiana School of Nursing, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universitas Muhammadiyah, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
  • Syahruramdhani Syahruramdhani School of Nursing, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universitas Muhammadiyah, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
  • Armain Suwitno School of Nursing, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universitas Muhammadiyah, Yogyakarta, Indonesia



Adolescent smokers, Adolescent non-smokers, Heart Rate, Heart Rate Recovery, Physical Fitness Level


BACKGROUND: Physical fitness level (PFL), heart rate (HR), and HR recovery (HRR1) were expressed the physical performance of an individual which can be the excellent indicators of health. That parameter differentiates the physical condition between a smoker and a non-smoker. At present, studies about them for adolescent smokers and non-smokers are still limited. Furthermore, they can be the prediction of the health indicators in the future.

AIM: The aim of the study was to compare the PFL, HR, and HRR between adolescent smokers and non-smokers

METHODOLOGY: This study was conducted by non-experimental and quantitative research with descriptive comparative design and cross-sectional approach. Mann–Whitney test used to describe the distinction between the PFL of students who are adolescent smokers and adolescent non-smokers. The sample data consist of 65 participants selected by purposive sampling collected using Harvard step test and manual HR measurement.

RESULTS: After gathered data, we concluded that the PFL of adolescent non-smokers in our samples was significantly higher than smokers with recorded results of p = 0.001 (p < 0.05); HR1, HR60, HR90, and HR180 in adolescent smokers were higher than non-smokers with p = 0.00 (p < 0.05); there were no differences between HRR1 in adolescent smokers and non-smokers with p = 0.042 (p > 0.05). Smoking had effects on PFL and HR.

CONCLUSION: The PFL and HR in adolescent non-smokers were better than in smokers but it had no effect on HRR1.


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How to Cite

Risdiana N, Syahruramdhani S, Suwitno A. The Physical Fitness Level, Heart Rate, and Heart Rate Recovery among Adolescent Smokers and Non-smokers. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2021 Mar. 1 [cited 2021 Apr. 16];9(T4):101-5. Available from: