Infection Control Measures in Dental Clinics during Coronavirus Disease-19 Pandemic in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: A Pilot Study


  • Rawa Kamal Abdelrahim Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, Dar Al Uloom University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
  • Husham Abu Elgasim Abdoun Medical Affairs of Saudi Border Guard, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
  • Pradeep Koppolu Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, Dar Al Uloom University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
  • Lingam Amara Swapna Department of Surgical and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Dentistry, Dar Al Uloom University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia



Personal Protective Equipment, Dental Clinics, COVID-19, Infection Control, Saudi Arabia


BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 is an infectious respiratory disease causing different symptoms ranging from mild to more complicated cases. In dental clinics, there is a potential risk of cross-infection between dental health worker and patients. Therefore, new infection prevention measures have been recommended to minimize spread of COVID-19 in dental clinics.

AIM: The aim of this study is to get an insight into the infection control measures followed by dentists and modification done in personal protective equipment (PPE) to combat spread of infection during COVID-19 in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

METHODS: A cross-sectional data using online Google survey. The sample included dentists working in either private or government from different regions in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Chi-square test was used to investigate the association between categorical variables (p < 0.05)

RESULTS: Seventy dentists included in the study of which 40% are working in Riyadh. Dental clinics are undertaken respiratory triage and reduce number of patients in waiting area (91% and 98%, respectively). Increased usage of PPE (head cap, face shield, and N95 mask) during the pandemic was observed in the study sample (p = 0.001). Working hours and number of patients were reduced during COVID-19.

CONCLUSION: Evidence shows that majority of dentists working in KSA are following recommended measures to minimize the spread of COVID-19. Some dentists modified their PPE during the pandemic. However, further research is required to investigate adherence to infection control measures by dentists.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...

Plum Analytics Artifact Widget Block


Yuen KS, Ye ZW, Fung SY, Chan CP, Jin DY. SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19: The most important research questions. Cell Biosci. 2020;10(1):40. PMid:32190290 DOI:

Tang D, Comish P, Kang R. The hallmarks of COVID-19 disease. PLoS Pathog. 2020;16(5):e1008536. PMid:32442210 DOI:

Ortiz-Prado E, Simbaña-Rivera K, Gómez-Barreno L, Rubio- Neira M, Guaman LP, Kyriakidis NC, et al. Clinical, molecular, and epidemiological characterization of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a comprehensive literature review. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2020;98(1):115094. PMid:32623267 DOI:

Zhang LP, Wang M, Wang Y, Zhu J, Zhang N. Focus on a 2019-novel Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). Future Microbiol. 2020;15:905-18. PMid:32524843 DOI:

Rodriguez-Morales AJ, Bonilla-Aldana DK, Balbin-Ramon GJ, Rabaan AA, Sah R, Paniz-Mondolfi A, et al. History is repeating itself: Probable zoonotic spillover as the cause of the 2019 novel Coronavirus Epidemic. Infez Med. 2020;28(1):3-5. PMid:32009128

Tan W, Zhao X, Ma X, Wang W, Niu P, Xu W, et al. A novel Coronavirus genome identified in a cluster of pneumonia cases- Wuhan, China 2019-2020. China CDC Wkly. 2020;2(4):61-2. DOI:

Zhu N, Zhang D, Wang W, Li X, Yang B, Song J, et al. A novel Coronavirus from patients with pneumonia in China, 2019. N Engl J Med. 2020;382(8):727-33. PMid:31978945 DOI:

Mahase E. China Coronavirus: WHO declares international emergency as death toll exceeds 200. BMJ. 2020;368:m408. PMid:32005727 DOI:

World Health Organization. WHO Timeline-COVID-19. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2020. Available from: https://www. [Last accessed on 2020 Jun 25]. DOI:

Guo G, Ye L, Pan K, Chen Y, Xing D, Yan K, et al. New insights of emerging SARS-CoV-2: Epidemiology, etiology, clinical features, clinical treatment, and prevention. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2020;8:410. PMid:32574318 DOI:

Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, Ren L, Zhao J, Hu Y, et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel Coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet. 2020;395(10223):497-506. PMid:31986264 DOI:

World Health Organization. Report of the WHO-China Joint Mission on Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Geneva: World Health Organization; 2020.

Rothan HA, Byrareddy SN. The epidemiology and pathogenesis of Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak. J Autoimmun. 2020;109:102433. PMid:32113704 DOI:

Singhal T. A review of Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Indian J Pediat. 2020;87(4):281-6. PMid:32166607 DOI:

Wang D, Hu B, Hu C, Zhu F, Liu X, Zhang J, et al. Clinical characteristics of 138 hospitalized patients with 2019 novel Coronavirus-infected pneumonia in Wuhan, China. JAMA. 2020;323(11):1061-9. PMid:32031570 DOI:

World Health Organization. Modes of Transmission of Virus Causing COVID-19: Implications for IPC Precaution Recommendations: Scientific Brief, 27 March 2020. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2020.

European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Infection Prevention and Control and Preparedness for COVID-19 in Healthcare Settings, Stockholm; 2020. DOI:

Morawska L, Tang JW, Bahnfleth W, Bluyssen PM, Boerstra A, Buonanno G, et al. How can airborne transmission of COVID-19 indoors be minimised? Environ Int. 2020;142:105832. PMid:32521345 DOI:

Zhang R, Li Y, Zhang AL, Wang Y, Molina MJ. Identifying airborne transmission as the dominant route for the spread of COVID-19. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2020;117(26):14857-63. PMid:32527856 DOI:

Su J. Aerosol transmission risk and comprehensive prevention and control strategy in dental treatment. Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2020;55(4):229-34. PMid:32268623

Zemouri C, de Soet H, Crielaard W, Laheij A. A scoping review on bio-aerosols in healthcare and the dental environment. PLoS One. 2017;12(5):e0178007. PMid:28531183 DOI:

Meng L, Hua F, Bian Z. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): Emerging and future challenges for dental and oral medicine. J Dent Res. 2020;99(5):481-7. PMid:32162995 DOI:

Peng X, Xu X, Li Y, Cheng L, Zhou X, Ren B. Transmission routes of 2019-nCoV and controls in dental practice. Int J Oral Sci. 2020;12(1):9. PMid:32127517 DOI:

Ministry of Health. Guidance for Reopening Dental Services in Governmental and Private Sectors during COVID-19 Pandemic. Saudi Arabia: Ministry of Health; 2020.

Consolo U, Bellini P, Bencivenni D, Iani C, Checchi V. Epidemiological aspects and psychological reactions to COVID-19 of dental practitioners in the Northern Italy districts of modena and reggio emilia. Int J Environ res Public Health. 2020;17(10):3459. PMid:32429193 DOI:

Laheij AM, Kistler JO, Belibasakis GN, Välimaa H, de Soet JJ. Healthcare-associated viral and bacterial infections in dentistry. J Oral Microbiol. 2012;4(1):17659. PMid:22701774 DOI:

Fiorillo L, Cervino G, Matarese M, D’Amico C, Surace G, Paduano V, et al. COVID-19 surface persistence: A recent data summary and its importance for medical and dental settings. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(9):3132. PMid:32365891 DOI:

Jibreen S, Dababneh R, Khouri A. Compliance with the use of personal protective equipment among dentists working at the royal medical services. J R Med Serv. 2009;16:74-8.

AlAhdal A, Aljehani W, Ali G, Bayoumi A. Knowledge, attitude and practice of infection control measures in private dental clinics in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Int J Dent Oral Health. 2019;5(1):1-6. DOI:

Mandourh MS, Alhomaidhi NR, Fatani NH, Alsharif AS, Ujaimi GK, Khan G. Awareness and implementation of infection control measures in private dental clinics, Makkah, Saudi Arabia. Int J Infect Control. 2017;13(1):1-14.

Mutters NT, Hägele U, Hagenfeld D, Hellwig E, Frank U. Compliance with infection control practices in an university hospital dental clinic. GMS Hyg Infect Control. 2014;9(3):Doc18. PMid:25285262

Khader Y, Al Nsour M, Al-Batayneh OB, Saadeh R, Bashier H, Alfaqih M, et al. Dentists’ awareness, perception, and attitude regarding COVID-19 and infection control: Cross-sectional study among jordanian dentists. JMIR Public Health Surveill. 2020;6(2):e18798. PMid:32250959 DOI:




How to Cite

Abdelrahim RK, Abdoun HAE, Koppolu P, Swapna LA. Infection Control Measures in Dental Clinics during Coronavirus Disease-19 Pandemic in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: A Pilot Study. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2021 Apr. 21 [cited 2024 Apr. 18];9(D):61-7. Available from:



Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry