Description the Importance of Developing a Self-Reliance Instrument for Schizophrenic Patients in the Hospital Setting


  • Hanik Endang Nihayati Department of Advanced Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia
  • Rizki Fitriyasari Department of Fundamental Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia
  • Rr Dian Tristiana Department of Fundamental Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia
  • Yuli Anggraini Master in Nursing Study Program, Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia
  • Iskandar Iskandar Master in Nursing Study Program, Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia
  • Hidayat Arifin Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia



Schizophrenia, Rehabilitation, Nursing, Instruments



Background: The level of independence among schizophrenia patients is still a problem that must be resolved. The development of appropriate relevant instruments is needed. This study aims to develop a nursing rehabilitation therapy instrument to increase the independence of schizophrenia patients in the hospital setting.

Methods: This study used a research and development study design. The study was conducted in a Psychiatric Hospital in Surabaya, Indonesia from August to December 2020. The total sample in this study consisted of 100 nurses determined by a simple random sampling technique. In addition, 50 medical records were observed. The inclusion criteria were nurses who cared for patients with schizophrenia with a minimum work experience of 1 year. Respondents were excluded from the study if they did not follow the study through to completion. The data collection process was done online by filling in a Google form. The data was analysed using descriptive statistics and a FGD followed with 10 nurses to discuss the new instrument.

Results: The data found that a rehabilitation therapy instrument is not currently available (53%). The FGD results show that it is necessary to develop the nurse’s knowledge and to provide adequate facilities and rooms, as well as to develop instruments to use as measuring tools in order to evaluate the rehabilitation therapy given.

Conclusion: Rehabilitation therapy instruments are important to develop for schizophrenia patients. It is hoped that the development of the instrument in this study will optimise the rehabilitation of schizophrenia patients.


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How to Cite

Nihayati HE, Fitriyasari R, Tristiana RD, Anggraini Y, Iskandar I, Arifin H. Description the Importance of Developing a Self-Reliance Instrument for Schizophrenic Patients in the Hospital Setting. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2021 Jun. 26 [cited 2021 Sep. 20];9(G):14-8. Available from:



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