Hazards of Chronic Exposure to Nonylphenol: Concomitant Effect on Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Male Albino Rats
Keywords:Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, Nonylphenol, Oxidative stress, Heme oxygenase-1, Apoptosis
BACKGROUND: Chronic exposure to environmental endocrine disruptors like nonylphenol (NP), has been shown in previous studies to predispose to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.
METHODS: In this work, forty adult male albino rats were divided into four groups, a high sucrose-high-fat diet (HSHFD) group, a group receiving 20 μg/kg/day of NP, an NP + HSHFD group, and a control group. The rats were sacrificed on day 60 after anesthetization.
RESULTS: Biochemical tests indicated that serum transaminases (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase) were significantly increased in the NP + HSHFD group. Lipid metabolism was most disrupted in the NP + HSHFD with a highly significant increase (p < 0.001) of serum cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared to other groups. Heme oxygenase 1 showed the highest expression in the NP + HSHFD group, with a highly significant difference in comparison with the other groups (p < 0.001). Histopathological studies revealed fatty changes and dilatation in the central vein in the HSHFD group. Lymphoid cell aggregates were detected in the NP group. Massive inflammation and degeneration were revealed in the NP + HSHFD group. There was also marked expression of the apoptotic protein caspase-3 in the NP + HSHFD group.CONCLUSION: In conclusion, exposure to a 20 μg/kg/day of NP induced oxidative stress leading to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.
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