Association of Polymorphism −174G/C Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Schizophrenia in Bataknese Population

Authors

  • Munawir Saragih Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia
  • Mustafa Mahmud Amin Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia
  • Elmeida Effendy Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2021.6320

Keywords:

Polymorphism, -174G/C, Schizophrenia, Bataknese population

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by positive symptoms, negative, and cognitive deficits. Polymorphism of −174G/C interleukin-6 position of the promoter has been described as one of polymorphism that believes have association with schizophrenia and Batak people have a philosophy of life, principles, and at the same time as a structure and system in society called Dalihan na Tolu. This Dalihan na Tolu has a role in the Batak customary marriage laws that cannot be separated during a customary marriage ceremony according to the traditions of the Batak people. This system causes most Batak people to marry each other so that the purity of the population is maintained and can be applied according to Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium.

AIM: Hence, we looked for association in the polymorphism of −174G/C interleukin-6 between people with schizophrenia of the Bataknese population and healthy controls.

METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study that included 75 people with schizophrenia in the Bataknese population and 75 healthy controls with the same ethnic group. The alleles and genotypes polymorphisms were compared between people with schizophrenia in the Bataknese population and healthy controls and were tested statistically using Chi-square.

RESULTS: Frequency of appearance of allele and genotype of −174G/C polymorphism found that there were significant differences in both alleles and genotypes between groups of people with schizophrenia and healthy control groups (p < 0.001) and −174G/C polymorphisms were risk factors for schizophrenia statistically in the Bataknese population (Odds Ratio >1).

CONCLUSIONS: We report an association of −174G/C polymorphism and schizophrenia in Bataknese population and polymorphism of −174G/C may be one of the risk factors for schizophrenia in the Bataknese population.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Plum Analytics Artifact Widget Block

References

Chaiyakunapruk N, Wu DB, Chiou CF, Kotirum S, Teoh SL, Chong HY. Global economic burden of schizophrenia: A systematic review. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2016;12:357-73. https://doi.org/10.2147/ndt.s96649 PMid:26937191 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S96649

Robertson GS, Hori SE, Powell KJ. Schizophrenia: An integrative approach to modelling a complex disorder. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2006;31(3):157-67. PMid:16699601

Watanabe Y, Someya W, Nawa H. Cytokine hypothesis of schizophrenia pathogenesis: Evidence from human studies and animal models. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2010;64(3):217-30. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1819.2010.02094.x PMid:20602722 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1819.2010.02094.x

Kalmady SV, Venkatasubramanian G, Shivakumar V, Gautham S, Gangadhar BN. Relationship between interleukin-6 gene polymorphism and hippocampal volume in antipsychotic-naive schizophrenia: Evidence for differential susceptibility?PLoS One. 2014;9(5):e96021. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0096021 PMid:24787542 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0096021

Paul-samojedny M, Owczarek A, Suchanek R, Palacz M, Fila-daniłow A, Borkowska P, et al. Association of interleukin paranoid schizophrenia in a Polish population. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2013;25:72-82. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.neuropsych.12020021 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.neuropsych.12020021

Hugo G. Indonesia’s population: Ethnicity and religion in a changing political landscape (review). Popul Rev. 2003;42(1-2):45-6. https://doi.org/10.1353/prv.2004.0003 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1353/prv.2004.0003

Nature, the Genetic Variation in a Population is Caused by Multiple Factors; 2010. Available from: https://www.nature.com/scitable/ebooks/a-brief-history-of-genetics-defining-experiments-16570302. [Last accessed on 2020 Oct 10].

Sitanggang JP. Raja Napogos. Jakarta: Penerbit Jala Permata Aksara; 2010.

Badan Pusat Statistik. Kewarganegaraan, Suku Bangsa, Agama dan Bahasa Sehari-Hari Penduduk Indonesia: Hasil Sensus Penduduk 2010. Jakarta: Badan Pusat Statistik; 2010. https://doi.org/10.14710/nusa.13.4.579-589 DOI: https://doi.org/10.14710/nusa.13.4.579-589

Wilson AG, di Giovine FS, Blakemore AI, Duff GW. Single base polymorphism in the human tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) gene detectable by NcoI restriction of PCR product. Hum Mol Genet. 1992;1(5):353. http://org.doi.10.1093/hmg/1.5.353 PMid:1363876 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/hmg/1.5.353

Lagmay JP, London WB, Gross TG, Termuhlen A, Sullivan N, Axel A, et al. Prognostic significance of interleukin-6 single nucleotide polymorphism genotypes in neuroblastoma: Rs1800795 (promoter) and rs8192284 (receptor). Clin Cancer Res. 2009;15(16):5234-9. https://doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.ccr-08-2953 PMid:19671870 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-08-2953

Zakharyan R, Petrek M, Arakelyan A, Mrazek F, Atshemyan S, Boyajyan A. Interleukin-6 promoter polymorphism and plasma levels in patients with schizophrenia. Tissue Antigens. 2012;80(2):136-42. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-0039.2012.01886.x PMid:22571276 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-0039.2012.01886.x

Downloads

Published

2021-06-07

How to Cite

1.
Saragih M, Amin MM, Effendy E. Association of Polymorphism −174G/C Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and Schizophrenia in Bataknese Population. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2021 Jun. 7 [cited 2024 Jul. 23];9(T3):56-9. Available from: https://oamjms.eu/index.php/mjms/article/view/6320

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 > >>