Literature Review: Menopause and Sexual Disorders


  • Muhammad Fidel Ganis Siregar Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Fertility, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia
  • S. Azmeila Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia
  • A. N. R. Sitompul Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia
  • M. E. A. G. Siregar Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia



Menopause, Sexual desire, menopause symptoms


Menopause is a permanent termination of the menstrual cycle caused by the loss of activity of ovarian follicles which is enforced when experiencing amenorrhea for 12 months. The mean age for women to stop menstruating was 51.5 years. The cause of menopause is a decrease in ovarian hormones. When the ovaries stop working and estrogen levels drop, a woman will experience several complaints such as changes in menstrual patterns, vasomotor, somatic, and psychological complaints, sleep disorders, sexual disorders, urogenital disorders, osteoporosis, and cardiovascular disease.

Physical, psychological, social and cultural factors are factors that influence women’s sexual function. The ageing process is known to increase the prevalence of sexual dysfunction. Female sexual dysfunction prevalence is quite high, range from 38-85.2%. Sexual disorders can take many forms and clinical symptoms. Circulating estrogen levels have been shown to influence sexual desire, activity, experiences, and problems in sexually active postmenopausal women. Deficiency of estrogen will cause vaginal atrophy which can affect sexual dysfunction. Many factors influence sexual dysfunction, both biological and psychological, in postmenopausal women. The goal of managing sexual disorders in postmenopausal women is to maintain age-related function. Vulvovaginal complaints should be managed individualized and depends on the severity of symptoms, medical history and lifestyle of the patient.


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How to Cite

Siregar MFG, Azmeila S, Sitompul ANR, Siregar MEAG. Literature Review: Menopause and Sexual Disorders. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2021 Jun. 23 [cited 2023 Dec. 1];9(T3):298-304. Available from:

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