A Structure Model of Family Empowerment in Preventing Smoking Initiation among Adolescent: An Empirical Study Conducted in Urban Area of Indonesia
Keywords:Adolescents, Family empowerment, Smoking, Double ABCX model
BACKGROUND: Family empowerment is a critical component for smoking prevention efforts among adolescents. Few information regarding the family empowerment model developed in preventing smoking initiation among adolescents in Indonesia.
AIM: The aim of this study was to identify determinants of the family empowerment model in preventing smoking initiation among adolescents in Indonesia.
METHODS: A cross-sectional research design was used for families with adolescent girls and boys (aged 10–14 years) in West Java, Indonesia. The convenience sampling procedure was employed. The study analyzed family demands and parenting stress as stressors. Family resources were divided into family functioning and communication process. The perception or judgment factor was assumed as parenting efficacy. Family empowerment has been identified as an indicator of adaptation. Structural equation modeling was used for data analysis.
RESULTS: The survey respondents consisted of 175 respondents. The mean age was 40.56 (SD = 11.73) and 57.2% had graduated from above high school. These findings suggest that family demands and parenting stress have an indirect effect on family empowerment through parenting efficacy, family functioning, and communication processes. The contribution of the effect of family demands, parenting stress, parenting efficacy, family function, and communication process on family empowerment was 68%.CONCLUSION: The family empowerment could be defined in the Double ABCX model in the prevention of smoking in adolescents and that the numerous adverse effects of stress can be modulated through parental efficacy as well as the ability to function of the family and communication. It recommends making family interventions an integral part of public health initiatives for the prevention of smoking initiation, as well as health policy formation.
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