Moderate Dose of Lipopolysaccharide Induces Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha and Interleukin-6 Production by Human Monocyte-derived Macrophages


  • Nuraiza Meutia Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia
  • Lokot Donna Lubis Department of Histology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia
  • Eka Roina Megawati Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia



Lipopolysaccharides, Monocytes, Macrophages, Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, Interleukin-6


BACKGROUND: Macrophages have been widely used for in vitro studies. Despite different types and doses of stimulatory agents that have been tested, there is no consensus for the method.

AIM: This study was aimed to determine a sufficient dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to stimulate inflammatory response in macrophages.

METHODS: Whole blood was collected from four donors after written informed consent. The monocytes were isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and stimulated with macrophage colony-stimulating factor, LPS, and Interferon-gamma for 6 days until differentiated into macrophages. The production of Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) were quantified after 24-h further stimulation with 100 ng/mL and 2 μg/mL of LPS.

RESULTS: Both doses increased TNF-α _production compare to their controls, but not statistically different (p > 0.05). There were also no differences in IL-6 production between treatments, 56.55 ± 32.30 pg/mL and 70.96 ± 65.08 pg/mL, respectively.

CONCLUSION: A dose of 100 ng/mL of LPS was sufficient to stimulate inflammatory response in human monocyte-derived macrophages. A 24-h duration of macrophage stimulation was sufficient to observed the production TNF-α.


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How to Cite

Meutia N, Lubis LD, Megawati ER. Moderate Dose of Lipopolysaccharide Induces Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha and Interleukin-6 Production by Human Monocyte-derived Macrophages. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2021 Jun. 27 [cited 2021 Sep. 20];9(A):468-72. Available from:

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