Protecting Families: A Qualitative Study on the Implementation of Protective Measures to Prevent COVID-19 Transmission


  • Ni Komang Ari Sawitri Nursing Study Program, Faculty of Medicine, Udayana University, Kuta Selatan, Indonesia
  • Indah Mei Rahajeng Nursing Study Program, Faculty of Medicine, Udayana University, Kuta Selatan, Indonesia
  • Luh Putu Eva Yanti Nursing Study Program, Faculty of Medicine, Udayana University, Kuta Selatan, Indonesia
  • Ida Ayu Agung Novi Jayanti Southern Denpasar Community Health Centre, Denpasar, Indonesia



Family, COVID-19, Protective measures, Health protection, Pandemic


BACKGROUND: Health protocol compliance among family members can help curb the spread of COVID-19. However, not all families or family members can easily navigate the changes brought about by the pandemic; hence, minimizing virus transmission remains a challenge.

AIM: Therefore, observing how families implement health protocols in daily life will reveal the challenges and opportunities, and inform public health policies.

METHODS: We conducted a qualitative study by collecting data through phone interviews from November 2020 to February 2021. Eighteen families with a total of 30 individuals participated in this study. The interview data were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using thematic analysis.

RESULTS: The analysis shows that participants were actively involved in implementing protective measures to prevent transmission among their family members. Five themes emerged from the data, namely fundamental concerns, restraints and constraints, pandemic roles, compromises, and intergenerational attitudes. The themes described the families’ lives during the pandemic, their efforts in protecting family members, and the dynamic within the families related to the implementation of COVID-19 protective measures.

CONCLUSION: This study indicates that families could play a key role in both protecting and compromising the health of their family members. Families respond to the health crisis actively, but at times increase the risk to virus exposure because they have to continue going about their daily lives.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...

Plum Analytics Artifact Widget Block


Walton M. Person and family-centred care. Br J Nurs. 2014;23(17):949. PMid:25251178 DOI:

SATGAS COVID-19. COVID-19 Map; 2020. p. 1. Available from: [Last accessed on 2020 Aug 03].

Bali Province. COVID-19 Map in Bali; 2020. Available from: [Last accessed on 2020 Sep 11].

SATGAS COVID 19. Must Know: Adapting to New Habits What You Need to Know? Task Force for the Acceleration of Handling COVID-19; 2020. Available from: [Last accessed on 2020 Sep 11]. DOI:

Naidoo J. In: Wills J, editor. Foundations for Health Promotion. 4th ed. London : Elsevier; 2016.

Hanson CL, Crandall A, Barnes MD, Magnusson B, Novilla ML, King J. Family-focused public health: Supporting homes and families in policy and practice. Front Public Health. 2019;7:59. PMid:30949468 DOI:

Barnes MD, Hanson CL, Novilla LB, Magnusson BM, Crandall AC, Bradford G. Family-Centered Health Promotion: Perspectives for Engaging Families and Achieving Better Health Outcomes. Los Angeles, CA: SAGE Publications; 2020. DOI:

Vedanthan R, Bansilal S, Soto AV, Kovacic JC, Latina J, Jaslow R, et al. Family-based approaches to cardiovascular health promotion. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2016;67(14):1725-37. PMid:27056780 DOI:

Gunn HE, Eberhardt KR. Family dynamics in sleep health and hypertension. Curr Hypertens Rep. 2019;21(5):39. PMid:30982174 DOI:

Mashabi S. When the Government admits it’s wrong to Use “New Normal”; 2020. Available from: [Last accessed on 2021 May 28].

Trogen B, Caplan A. Risk compensation and COVID-19 vaccines. Ann Intern Med. 2021;174(6):858-9. PMid:33646837 DOI:

Daly KJ. Qualitative Methods for Family Studies and Human Development. Los Angeles, CA: Sage Publications; 2007.

Gilgun JF, Daly K, Handel G. In: Gilgun JF, Daly K, Handel G, editors. Qualitative Methods in Family Research. Newbury Park London : Sage Publications; 1992. DOI:

Kahlke RM. Generic qualitative approaches: Pitfalls and benefits of methodological mixology. Int J Qualitative Methods. 2014;13(1):37-52. DOI:

Tucker BP, Parker LD. Comparing Interview Interaction Modes in Management Accounting Research: A Case to Answer? AAA; 2015. DOI:

Farooq MB, de Villiers C. Telephonic Qualitative Research Interviews: When to Consider them and how to do them. Meditari Accountancy Research; 2017. DOI:

Schober MF, Conrad FG, Antoun C, Ehlen P, Fail S, Hupp AL, et al. Precision and disclosure in text and voice interviews on smartphones. PLoS One. 2015;10(6):e0128337. PMid:26060991 DOI:

Dedoose. Dedoose Version 8.0.35, Web Application for Managing, Analyzing, and Presenting Qualitative and Mixed Method Research Data; 2018. Available from: [Last accessed on 2021 Apr 11].

Braun V, Clarke V. Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qual Res Psychol. 2006;3(2):77-101. DOI:

Byrne D. Research Ethics. Los Angeles, CA : SAGE Publications, Inc.; 2016.

Comstock G. Research Ethics: A Philosophical Guide to the Responsible Conduct of Research. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2013. DOI:

Orb A, Eisenhauer L, Wynaden D. Ethics in qualitative research. J Nurs Scholarsh. 2001;33(1):93-6. PMid:11253591 DOI:

Silverman D. Doing qualitative research. 4th ed. Los Angeles: SAGE; 2013.

Denzin NK, Lincoln YS. Strategies of Qualitative Inquiry. 4th ed. Los Angeles, CA: SAGE; 2013.

The Ministry of Health R of I. Guidelines for Community Empowerment in Preventing Covid 19 in RT/RW/Village. The Ministry of Health; 2020.

Friedman MM, Bowden VR, Jones E. Family Nursing: Research, Theory and Practice. Hoboken, New Jersey: Prentice Hall; 2003.

Chen H, Xu W, Paris C, Reeson A, Li X. Social distance and SARS memory: Impact on the public awareness of 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak. MedRxiv. 2020;2020:20033688. DOI:

Dunphey DC. The Primary Group: A Handbook for Analysis and Field Research. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts; 1972.

Quinn JR, Schmitt M, Baggs JG, Norton SA, Dombeck MT, Sellers CR. Family members’ informal roles in end-of-life decision making in adult intensive care units. Am J Crit Care. 2012;21(1):43-51. PMid:22210699 DOI:

Morrongiello BA, Midgett C, Shields R. Don’t run with scissors: Young children’s knowledge of home safety rules. J Pediatr Psychol. 2001;26(2):105-15. jpepsy/26.2.105 PMid:11181886 DOI:

Thomas AM, Peterson L, Goldstein D. Problem solving and diabetes Regiman adherence by children and adolescents with IDDM in social pressure situations: A reflection of normal development. J Pediatr Psychol. 1997;22(4):541-61. PMid:9302851 DOI:

Bhopal SS, Bagaria J, Olabi B, Bhopal R. Children and young people remain at low risk of COVID-19 mortality. Lancet Child Adolesc Health. 2021;5(5):e12-3. PMid:33713603 DOI:

Saleem H, Rahman J, Aslam N, Murtazaliev S, Khan S. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children: Vulnerable or spared? A systematic review. Cureus. 2020;12(5):e8207. PMid:32577325 DOI:

Liu K, Chen Y, Lin R, Han K. Clinical features of COVID-19 in elderly patients: A comparison with young and middle-aged patients. J Infect. 2020;80(6):e14-8. PMid:32171866 DOI:

Petretto DR, Pili R. Ageing and COVID-19: What is the Role for Elderly People? Basel, Switzerland: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute; 2020. DOI:

Kidenda MC. The necessity for parents to watch animated cartoons with children aged seven to eleven years. J Educ Pract. 2018;2(1):42-52. DOI:

Beck MJ, Hensher DA. Insights into the impact of COVID-19 on household travel and activities in Australia the early days under restrictions. Transp Policy. 2020;96:76-93. PMid:32834680 DOI:

Chiesa V, Antony G, Wismar M, Rechel B. COVID-19 pandemic: Health impact of staying at home, social distancing and “lockdown” measures a systematic review of systematic reviews. J Public Health (Oxford, England). 2021;2021:fdab102. DOI:

Narici M, de Vito G, Franchi M, Paoli A, Moro T, Marcolin G, et al. Impact of sedentarism due to the COVID-19 home confinement on neuromuscular, cardiovascular and metabolic health: Physiological and pathophysiological implications and recommendations for physical and nutritional countermeasures. Eur J Sport Sci. 2020;21(4):614-35. PMid:32394816 DOI:

Tobías A. Evaluation of the lockdowns for the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic in Italy and Spain after one month follow up. Sci Total Environ. 2020;725:138539. PMid:32304973 DOI:

Zhao S, Chen H. Modeling the epidemic dynamics and control of COVID-19 outbreak in China. Quant Biol (Beijing, China). 2020;2020:1-9. PMid:32219006 DOI:

Amer F, Hammoud S, Farran B, Boncz I, Endrei D. Assessment of countries’ preparedness and lockdown effectiveness in fighting COVID-19. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2021;15(2):e15-22. PMid:32576332 DOI:

Ceballos F, Kannan S, Kramer B. Impacts of a national lockdown on smallholder farmers’ income and food security: Empirical evidence from two states in India. World Dev. 2020;136:105069. DOI:




How to Cite

Sawitri NKA, Rahajeng IM, Yanti LPE, Jayanti IAAN. Protecting Families: A Qualitative Study on the Implementation of Protective Measures to Prevent COVID-19 Transmission. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2021 Aug. 29 [cited 2023 Sep. 27];9(G):34-40. Available from:



Nursing in Internal Medicine