Mindfulness Meditation Based on Spiritual Care to Reduce Community Anxiety due to the Impact of Pandemic Coronavirus Disease


  • Siti Nur Hasina Departement of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Universitas Nahdlatul Ulama Surabaya, Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5873-0602
  • Iis Noventi Departement of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Universitas Nahdlatul Ulama Surabaya, Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia
  • P.H. Livana Nursing Science Program, Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Kesehatan Kendal, Kendal, Central Java, Indonesia https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4905-7214
  • Dodik Hartono Nursing Science Program, STIKES Hafshawaty Pesantren Zainul Hasan, East Java, Indonesia https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1262-3534




Anxiety, Coronavirus disease, Mindfulness meditation, Spiritual care


BACKGROUND: The spread of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has spread throughout the world and has created a level of fear, uncertainty that has an impact on several aspects of life including mental health. The rapid spread of the Corona Virus or COVID-19 throughout the world has damaged the order of life starting from the economy, social, politics, education, culture, religion and health. Various efforts have been made by the Indonesian government with social distancing or physical distancing, washing hands with soap and staying active at home. Conditions that change suddenly will make people unprepared to deal with it, especially in the psychological condition of the Indonesian people who experience a lot of anxiety.

AIM: The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of mindfulness meditation based on spiritual care on the level of community anxiety due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

METHODS: This type of research uses experimental quantitative research using a randomized controlled trial research design. This research was conducted for 4 weeks in January-February 2021. The population of this study is the Surabaya community. The sampling technique used consecutive sampling technique and was divided into two groups, namely the intervention group as many as 61 respondents and the control group as many as 61 respondents. Data analysis used paired t test and independent t test with a significance value of p < 0.05. This research questionnaire uses the DASS 42 questionnaire has reliability 0.82 and the validity test gets the Cronbach alpha value is 0.85.

RESULTS: The average level of anxiety before doing the spiritual care-based mindfulness meditation intervention in the intervention group was 17.28 (severe anxiety) and 17.18 in the control group (severe anxiety) with p = 1.000 which means there is no difference in the average level of anxiety whereas After being given the intervention, the average level of anxiety in the intervention group was 6.03 (normal anxiety) and 18.06 in the control group (severe anxiety) with p = 0.000, which means that there is a difference in the average level of anxiety in the intervention group and the control group after being given the intervention.

CONCLUSION: Mindfulness meditation based on spiritual care can reduce people’s anxiety levels during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...

Plum Analytics Artifact Widget Block


Habibi A. Normal Baru Pasca Covid-19. Vol. 4. Adalah: Buletin Hukum dan Kwadilan; 2020.

World Health Organization. Rolling Updates on Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19). Geneva: World Health Organization; 2020. Available from: https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/events-as-they-happen. [Last accessed on 2021 Feb 26].

Linton M, Kobayashi T, Yang Y, Hayashi K, Akhmetzhanov AR, Jung S, et al. Incubation period and other epidemiological characteristics of 2019 novel coronavirus infections with right truncation: A statistical analysis of publicly available case data. J Clin Med. 2020;9:538. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9020538 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9020538

Shereen MA, Khan S, Kazmi A, Bashir N, Siddique B. COVID-19 infection: Origin, transmission, and characteristics of human coronaviruses. J Adv Res. 2020;24:91-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jare.2020.03.005 PMid:32257431 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jare.2020.03.005

Machado DB, Alves FJ, Teixeira CS, Rocha A, Castro-de- Araujo LF, Sing A, et al. Effects of COVID-19 on Anxiety, Depression and Other Mental Health Issues: A Worldwide Scope Review; 2020. https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-58186/v1

Jarnawi. Mengelola Cemas Di Tengah Pandemik Corona. Jurnal At-Taujih Bimbingan dan Konseling Islam. Vol. 3 No. 1 Januari- Juni; 2020. Available from: http://www.jurnal.ar-raniry.ac.id/ index.php/taujih. [Last accessed on 2021 Feb 26]. https://doi.org/10.22373/taujih.v3i1.7216 DOI: https://doi.org/10.22373/taujih.v3i1.7216

Tull MT, Edmonds KA, Scamaldo KM, Richmond JR, Rose JP, Gratz KL, et al. Psychological outcomes associated with stay-at-home orders and the perceived impact of COVID-19 on daily life. Psychiatry Res. 2020;289:113098. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113098 PMid:32434092 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113098

Wulandari P, Hidayar R. General anxiety disorder-related coronavirus disease-19 Outbreak in Indonesia: A case reports. Maced J Med Sci. 2020;8:36-8. https://doi.org/10.3889/ oamjms.2020.4762 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2020.4762

Aufar AF, Raharjo ST. Relaxation activities as coping with stress during the Covid-19 pandemic. J Kolab Resolusi Konflik. 2020;2:157-63. https://doi.org/10.24198/jkrk.v2i2.29126

World Health Organization. Global Situation. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2020. Available from: https://covid19.who.int/?gclid=EAIaIQobChMI8IjVq_ G57gIVBh4rCh22bg8jEAAYASAAEgJVQ_D_BwE. [Last accessed on 2021 Jan 20].

Komite Penanganan COVID-19 dan Pemulihan Ekonomi Nasional. Peta Sebaran; 2021. Available from: https://www.covid19.go.id/peta-sebaran. [Last accessed on 2021 Jan 26]. https://doi.org/10.31228/osf.io/5h9jd DOI: https://doi.org/10.31228/osf.io/5h9jd

Pemerintah Provinsi Jawa Timur. JATIM Tanggap COVID-19; 2021. Available from: http://www.infocovid19.jatimprov.go.id. [Last accessed on 2021 Jan 26].

Pemerintah Kota Surabaya. Surabaya Lawan COVID-19; 2021. Available from: https://www.lawancovid19.surabaya.go.id. [Last accessed on 2021 Jan 26].

Machado DB, Alves FJ, Teixeira CS, Rocha AS, Castro-de- Araujo LF, Singh A, et al. Effects of COVID-19 on Anxiety, Depression and other Mental Health Issues: A Worldwide Scope Review; 2020. https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-58186/v1 DOI: https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-58186/v1

Fitria L. Cognitive behavior therapy counseling untuk mengatasi anxiety dalam masa pandemi Covid-19. ALIRSYAD. 2020;10(1):23-9.

Setyaningrum W, Yanuarti HA. Pengaruh Covid-19 terhadap kesehatan mental masyarakat di kota malang. J Ilmu Sosial Pendidikan. 2020;4:1580. https://doi.org/10.36312/jisip.v4i4.1580 DOI: https://doi.org/10.36312/jisip.v4i4.1580

Iqbal M, Rizqulloh L. Early detection of mental health due to the COVID-19 pandemic at the Unnes sex care community through the self-reporting questionnaire method. J Sains Teknol Masyarakat Jejaring. 2020;3(1):20-4. https://doi.org/10.24167/praxis.v3i1.2730 DOI: https://doi.org/10.24167/praxis.v3i1.2730

Vibriyanti D. Community mental health: Managing anxiety amidst the Covid-19 pandemic. J Kependudukan Indones. 2020:69-74. https://doi.org/10.14203/jki.v0i0.550 DOI: https://doi.org/10.14203/jki.v0i0.550

Aufar AF, Raharjo ST. Relaxation activities as coping with stress during the COVID-19 pandemic. J Kolaborasi Resolusi Konflik. 2020;2(2):157. https://doi.org/10.24198/jkrk.v2i2.29126 DOI: https://doi.org/10.24198/jkrk.v2i2.29126

Sari I. Analisis dampak pandemi covid-19 terhadap kecemasan masyarakat: Literature review. Bina Gen. 2020;12(1):69-76. https://doi.org/10.35907/bgjk.v12i1.161 DOI: https://doi.org/10.35907/bgjk.v12i1.161

Chaudhury S, Pooja V, Thakur M, Saldanha D. COVID 19 pandemic anxiety and its management. Acta Sci Neurol. 2020;3:39-41. https://doi.org/10.31080/asne.2020.03.0208 DOI: https://doi.org/10.31080/ASNE.2020.03.0208

Raony I, de Figueiredo CS, Pandolfo P, Giestal-de-Araujo E, Oliviera-Silva Bomfim P, Savino W. Psycho-neuroendocrine immune interactions in COVID-19: Potential impacts on mental health. Front. Immunol. 2020;11:1170. https://doi.org/10.3389/ fimmu.2020.01170 PMid:32574266 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.01170

Roulston A, Montgomery L, Campbell A, Davidson G. Exploring the impact of mindfulness on mental well-being, stress and resilience of undergraduate social work students. Soc Work Educ. 2018;37:157-72. https://doi.org/10.1080/02615479.2017.1388776 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02615479.2017.1388776

Oken BS, Goodrich E, Klee D, Memmott T, Proulx J. Predictors of improvements in mental health from mindfulness meditation in stressed older adults. Altern Ther Health Med. 2018;24(1):48-55. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-016-0640-7 PMid:29332020 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-016-0640-7

Mansurifard F, Ghaljaei F, Navidian A. The effect of spiritual care on the spiritual health of adolescents with cancer: A pre-experimental study. Med Surg Nurs J. 2019;8(4):e100567. https://doi.org/10.5812/msnj.100567 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5812/msnj.100567

Moeini M, Taleghani F, Mehrabi T, Musarezaie A. Effect of a spiritual care program on levels of anxiety in patients with leukemia. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res. 2014;19(1):88-93. PMid:24554966

Hatmalyakin D. Pengaruh Terapi Mindfulness Meditation Dan Aromaterapi Terhadap Penurunan Kecemasan Perawat Pada Penanganan Kegawatdaruratan Kardiovaskular Di Rsud Dr. Soedarso Pontianak. Magister thesis, Universitas Brawijaya; 2019.

Hoge EA, Bui E, Marques L, Metcalf CA, Morris LK, Robinaugh DJ, et al. Randomized controlled trial of mindfulness meditation for generalized anxiety disorder: Effects on anxiety and stress reactivity. J Clin Psychiatry. 2013;74(8):786-92. https://doi.org/10.4088/jcp.12m08083 PMid:23541163 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4088/JCP.12m08083

Breedvelt JJ, Amanvermez Y, Harrer M, Karyotaki E, Gilbody S, Bockting CL, et al. The effects of meditation, yoga, and mindfulness on depression, anxiety, and stress in tertiary education students: A meta-analysis. Front Psychiatry. 2019;10:193. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00193 PMid:31068842 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00193

Liu HL, Liu Q, Xie HY, Wang FZ, Xie YM, Li ZH. Effect of meditation training on postoperative pain in school-age children with cardiac diseases. Chin J Nurs. 2011;46:745-7.

Hoge EA, Bui E, Palitz SA, Schwarz NR, Owens ME, Johnston JM, et al. The effect of mindfulness meditation training on biological acute stress responses in generalized anxiety disorder. Psychiatry Res. 2018;262:328-32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2017.01.006 PMid:28131433 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2017.01.006

Afandi NA. The effect of mindfulness training on increasing self-control of high school students. J PAMATOR. 2016;5(1):2493. https://doi.org/10.21927/jnki.2018.6(2).56-67

Hasina SN, Sukartini T, Setiyowati E. Effect of sleep hygiene and deep breathing exercise with spiritual care on sleep quality and quality of life of hemodialysis patient in ahmad yani islamic hospital Surabaya. J Ners Kebidanan Indones. 2019;6(2):140-51. DOI: https://doi.org/10.21927/jnki.2018.6(2).56-67

Hasina S, Khafid M. Pengaruh sleep hygiene dan ergonomic exercise berbasis spiritual care terhadap kadar asam urat dan kualitas hidup penderita arthritis gout. J Keperawatan. 2020;12(2):203-16.

Puchalski CM. Spirituality and end-of-life care: A time for listening and caring. J Palliat Med. 2002;5(2):289-94. PMid:12006231 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1089/109662102753641287

Meraviglia M. Effects of spirituality in breast cancer survivors. Oncol Nurs Forum. 2006;33(1):E1-7. PMid:16470229 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1188/06.ONF.E1-E7

Moeini M, Ghasemi TM, Yousefi H, Abedi H. The effect of spiritual care on spiritual health of patients with cardiac ischemia. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res. 2012;17(3):195-9. PMid:23833611

Afzali A, Delavar A, Borjali A, Mirzamani M. Psychometric properties of DASS-42 as assessed in a sample of Kermanshah high school students. J-Res Behav Sci. 2007;5:81-92.

Asgharimoghadam MA, Saed F, Dibajnia P, Zangeneh JA. Preliminary study of the reliability and validity of the depression, ananv anxiety, and stress scale on non-clinical samples. Daneshvar-e-Raftar. 2009;31:23-38.

Shin KE, Newman MG. Self and otherperceptions of interpersonal problems: Effects of generalized anxiety, social anxiety, and depression. Anxiety Disord. 2019;65:1-10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2019.04.005 PMid:31054457 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2019.04.005

Zwan JE, de Vente W, Huizink AC, Bögels SM, de Bruin EI. Physical activity, mindfulness meditation, or heart rate variability biofeedback for stress reduction: A randomized controlled trial. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2015;40(4):257-68. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10484-015-9293-x PMid:26111942 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10484-015-9293-x

Bohlmeijer E, Prenger R, Taal E, Cuijpers P. The effect of mindfulness-based stress reduction therapy on mental health of adults with a chronic medical disease: A meta analysis. J Psychosom Res. 2010;68(6):539-44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychores.2009.10.005 PMid:20488270 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychores.2009.10.005

Germer CK. The Mindful Path To SelfCompassion. United State of America: The Guilford Press; 2009.

Zollars I, Poirier TI, Pailden J. Effects of mindfulness meditation on mindfulness, mental-wellbeing and perceived stress. Curr Pharm Teach Learn. 2019;11(10):1022-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cptl.2019.06.005 PMid:31685171 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cptl.2019.06.005

Flett JA, Hayne H, Riordan BC, Thompson LM, Conner TS. Mobile mindfulness meditation: A randomized controlled trial of the effect of two popular apps on mental health. Mindfulness. 2018;10:863-79. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-018-1050-9 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-018-1050-9

Rahimi N, Nouhi E, Nakhaee N. Spiritual health among nursing and midwifery students at kerman university of medical sciences. J Hayat. 2014;19(4):74-81. https://doi.org/10.29252/ijn. DOI: https://doi.org/10.29252/ijn.

Fallah R, Golzari M, Dastani M, Zahiredin A, Nafisi N, Akbari ME. Spirituality, Hope and Mental Health in Breast Cancer Patients. In: Palliative Medicine in the 21st Century Congress;2010. p. 14-7.

Breitbart W, Rosenfeld B, Gibson C, Pessin H, Poppito S, Nelson C, et al. Meaning-centered group psychotherapy for patients with advanced cancer: A pilot randomized controlled trial. Psychooncology. 2010;19(1):21-8. https://doi.org/10.1002/pon.1556 PMid:19274623 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/pon.1556

Bauer-Wu S. Mindfulness meditation. Oncology (Williston Park, NY). 2010;24(10 Suppl):36-40. PMid:21275324




How to Cite

Hasina SN, Noventi I, Livana P, Hartono D. Mindfulness Meditation Based on Spiritual Care to Reduce Community Anxiety due to the Impact of Pandemic Coronavirus Disease. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2021 Aug. 31 [cited 2023 Sep. 27];9(G):41-6. Available from: https://oamjms.eu/index.php/mjms/article/view/6487



Nursing in Internal Medicine


Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 > >>