Effect of Artificial Carbon Dioxide-Rich Water Immersion on Peripheral Blood Flow in Healthy Volunteers: Preliminary Study about Artificial Carbon Dioxide-Rich Water


  • Andi Rizky Arbaim Hasyar Postgraduate Program, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Hasanuddin, Makassar, Indonesia https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2230-8754
  • Haerani Rasyid Department of Internal Medicine, Nephrology and Hypertension Division, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Hasanuddin, Makassar, Indonesia
  • Irfan Idris Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Hasanuddin, Makassar, Indonesia https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7350-8687
  • Irawan Yusuf Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Hasanuddin, Makassar, Indonesia




Carbon dioxide, Regional blood flow, Balneotherapy, Laser Doppler flowmetry


BACKGROUND: Peripheral blood circulation disorder is one of the global health problems. Balneotherapy that uses CO2 springs may be one of the complementary treatment options. The device to produce artificial CO2-rich water is needed to achieve an improvement effect, at least almost like the improvement effect of natural balneotherapy.

AIM: This study aims to investigate the effect of artificial CO2-rich water immersion on peripheral blood flow using Bicarbonated JesC CREA BC-2000.

METHODS AND MATERIALS: Thirty-nine healthy volunteers participated in this study. Each subject immersed both of their legs in a mixed solution from water and CO2 at temperature 38°C. This solution was mixed using a device, namely, “Bicarbonated JesC CREA BC-2000”. Peripheral blood flow was measured for 5 min before immersion (in this study, we denoted it as the mean basal blood flow), 10 min during immersion, and 5 min after immersion using pocket JMS laser Doppler flowmetry MBF-IIA. Repeated analysis of variance was used for statistical analysis.

RESULTS: There is the difference in peripheral blood flow among before, during, and after immersing the legs into artificial CO2-rich water using Bicarbonated JesC CREA BC-2000 (p < 0.001).

CONCLUSION: Bicarbonated JesC CREA BC-2000 may be used as the device to produce an artificial CO2-rich water bath that may affect peripheral blood flow in healthy volunteers.


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How to Cite

Hasyar ARA, Rasyid H, Idris I, Yusuf I. Effect of Artificial Carbon Dioxide-Rich Water Immersion on Peripheral Blood Flow in Healthy Volunteers: Preliminary Study about Artificial Carbon Dioxide-Rich Water. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2021 Aug. 3 [cited 2021 Oct. 19];9(A):527-31. Available from: https://oamjms.eu/index.php/mjms/article/view/6591