Where is the Third E in Controlling Coronavirus Disease-19 in Indonesia? A Mini Review





Coronavirus disease-19, Behavior, Enforcement, Indonesia


Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) continues to attract global attention and is the most serious health problem today. Indonesia faces a very significant spike in cases in mid-2021. This may be related to inadequate enforcement before cases reach their peak. To review what has happened and what should be done in the future, this paper presents the three Es concept to be applied more consistently in efforts to control COVID-19 in Indonesia.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...

Plum Analytics Artifact Widget Block


World Health Organization. WHO Coronavirus Disease (COVID- 19) Dashboard. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2021. Available from: https://www.covid19.who.int [Last accessed on 2021 Jul 18].

Satuan Tugas Penanganan COVID-19, “Peta Sebaran,” 2021; 2021. Available from: https://www.covid19.go.id/peta-sebaran [Last accessed on 2021 Jul 18].

Worldometer, COVID-19 Coronavirus Pandemic; 2021. Available from: https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus [Last accessed on 2021 Jul 18].

World Health Organization. COVID-19 Weekly Epidemiological. 48th ed. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2021. Available from: https://www.who.int/publications/m/item/weeklyepidemiological-update-on-covid-19 [Last accessed on 2021 Jul 13].

Ministry of Health, Vaksinasi COVID-19 Nasional; 2021. Available from: https://www.vaksin.kemkes.go.id/#/vaccines [Last accessed on 2021 Jul 18].

Parino F, Zino L, Porfiri M, Rizzo A. Modelling and predicting the effect of social distancing and travel restrictions on COVID-19 spreading. J R Soc Interface. 2021;18(175):20200875. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsif.2020.087 PMid:33561374

Verma BK, Verma M, Verma VK, Abdullah RB, Nath DC, Khan HT, et al. Global lockdown: An effective safeguard in responding to the threat of COVID-19. J Eval Clin Pract. 2020;26(6):1592-8. https://doi.org/10.1111/jep.13483 PMid:32970386

DiClemente R, Salazar L, Crosby R. Health Behavior Theory for Public Health Principles, Foundations, and Applications. 2nd ed. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning; 2019.

Scriven A. Promoting Health A Practical Guide. 6th ed. Tamil Nadu: Elsevier Ltd.; 2010.

Paisley W, Atkin CK. Public communication campaigns-the american experience. In: Rice RE, Atkin CK, editors. Public Communication Campaigns. 4th ed. New York, United States: SAGE; 2013.

Storey JD, Saffitz GB, Rimón JG. Social marketing. In: Glanz K, Rimer BK, Viswanath K, editors. Health Behavior and Health Education: Theory, Research, and Practice. 4th ed. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass; 2008.

MGallaway MS, Rigler J, Robinson S, Herrick K, Livar E, Komatsu KK, et al. Trends in COVID-19 incidence after implementation of mitigation measures-arizona, January 22-August 7, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020;69(40):1460-3. https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6940e3 PMid:33031366

Al Zobbi M, Alsinglawi B, Mubin O, Alnajjar F. Measurement method for evaluating the lockdown policies during the COVID-19 pandemic. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(15):5574. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155574 PMid:32748822

Ghosal S, Bhattacharyya R, Majumder M. Impact of complete lockdown on total infection and death rates: A hierarchical cluster analysis. Diabetes Metab Syndr. 2020;14(4):707-11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2020.05.026 PMid:32426062

Peng Z, Song W, Ding Z, Guan Q, Yang X, Xu Q, et al. Linking key intervention timings to rapid declining effective reproduction number to quantify lessons against COVID-19. Front Med. 2020;14(5):623-9. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11684-020-0788-3 PMid:32495288

Dhami MK, Weiss-Cohen L, Ayton P. Are people experiencing the ‘pains of imprisonment’ during the COVID-19 lockdown? Front Psychol. 2020;11:578430. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.578430 PMid:33329229

Delen D, Eryarsoy E, Davazdahemami B. No place like home: Cross-national data analysis of the efficacy of social distancing during the COVID-19 pandemic. JMIR Public Health Surveill. 2020;6(2):e19862. https://doi.org/10.2196/19862 PMid:32434145

Hasan HF. Legal and health response to COVID-19 in the arab countries. Risk Manag Healthc Policy. 2021;14:1141-54. https://doi.org/10.2147/RMHP.S297565 PMid:33758566

Badr HS, Du H, Marshall M, Dong E, Squire MM, Gardner LM. Association between mobility patterns and COVID-19 transmission in the USA: A mathematical modelling study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2020;20(11):1247-54. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30553-3 PMid:32621869

Casares M, Khan H. The timing and intensity of social distancing to flatten the COVID-19 curve: The case of spain. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(19):7283. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17197283 PMid:33036132

Lewtak K, Nitsch-Osuch A. What is the effect of social distancing on the course of COVID-19 epidemic? Pol Merkur Lekarski. 2021;49(289):71-9. PMid:33713099

Gargoum SA, Gargoum AS. Limiting mobility during COVID-19, when and to what level? An international comparative study using change point analysis. J Transp Health. 2021;20:101019. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jth.2021.101019 PMid:33777694

Bante A, Mersha A, Tesfaye A, Tsegaye B, Shibiru S, Ayele G, et al. Adherence with COVID-19 preventive measures and associated factors among residents of dirashe district, Southern Ethiopia. Patient Prefer Adherence. 2021;15:237-249. https://doi.org/10.2147/PPA.S293647 PMid:33568900

Peng F, Tu L, Yang Y, Hu P, Wang R, Hu Q, et al. Management and treatment of COVID-19: The Chinese experience. Can J Cardiol. 2020;36(6):915-30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cjca.2020.04.010 PMid:32439306

Bielecki M, Patel D, Hinkelbein J, Komorowski M, Kester J, Ebrahim S, et al. Air travel and COVID-19 prevention in the pandemic and peri-pandemic period: A narrative review. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2021;39:101915. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101915 PMid:33186687

Loewenthal G, Abadi S, Avram O, Halabi K, Ecker N, Nagar N, et al. COVID-19 pandemic-related lockdown: Response time is more important than its strictness. EMBO Mol Med. 2020;12(11):e13171. https://doi.org/10.15252/emmm.202013171 PMid:33073919

Wilder-Smith A, Chiew CJ, Lee VJ. Can we contain the COVID-19 outbreak with the same measures as for SARS? Lancet Infect Dis. 2020;20(5):e102-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30129-8 PMid:32145768

Sarumpaet S, Zaluchu F, Eyanoer PC, Simanjuntak NH. Fighting against COVID-19 and fighting against stigma: A mini- review. Open Access Maced J Med Sci. 2020;8(T1):522-5.

Salvamani S, Tan HZ, Thang WJ, Ter HC, Wan MS, Gunasekaran B, et al. Understanding the dynamics of COVID-19; implications for therapeutic intervention, vaccine development and movement control. Br J Biomed Sci. 2020;77(4):168-84. https://doi.org/10.1080/09674845.2020.1826136 PMid:32942955

World Health Organization. WHO Director-General’s Opening Remarks at the 8th Meeting of the IHR Emergency Committee on COVID-19. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2021. Available from: https://www.who.int/director-general/speeches/detail/who-director-general-s-opening-remarks-at-the-8th-meeting-ofthe-ihr-emergency-committee-on-covid-19-14-july-2021 [Last accessed on 2021 Jul 19].

Aravindakshan A, Boehnke J, Gholami E, Nayak A. Preparing for a future COVID-19 wave: Insights and limitations from a data-driven evaluation of non-pharmaceutical interventions in Germany. Sci Rep. 2020;10(1):20084. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-76244-6 PMid:33208764

Al-Hasan A, Yim D, Khuntia J. Citizens’ adherence to COVID-19 mitigation recommendations by the government: A 3-country comparative evaluation using web-based cross-sectional survey data. J Med Internet Res. 2020;22(8):e20634. https://doi.org/10.2196/20634 PMid:32716896

Lee D, Heo K, Seo Y, Ahn H, Jung K, Lee S, Choi H. Flattening the curve on COVID-19: South Korea’s measures in tackling initial outbreak of Coronavirus. Am J Epidemiol. 2021;190(4):496- 505. https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwaa217 PMid:33106843

Gupta MK, Bhardwaj P, Goel A, Saurabh S, Misra S. COVID-19 appropriate behavior in India: Time to invest for the benefits in future. J Family Med Prim Care. 2021;10(5):1818-22. https://doi.org/10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_2382_20 PMid:34195109

Nix J, Ivanov S, Pickett JT. What does the public want police to do during pandemics? A national experiment. Criminol Public Policy. 2021. https://doi.org/10.1111/1745-9133.12535 PMid:33821153

Pataro IM, Oliveira JF, Morato MM, Amad AA, Ramos PI, Pereira FA, et al. A control framework to optimize public health policies in the course of the COVID-19 pandemic. Sci Rep. 2021;11(1):13403. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-92636-8 PMid:34183727

Roth Y, Plonsky O, Shalev E, Erev I. On the value of alert systems and gentle rule enforcement in addressing pandemics. Front Psychol. 2020;11:577743. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.577743 PMid:33329225

Tang KHD. Movement control as an effective measure against COVID- 19 spread in Malaysia: An overview. Z Gesundh Wiss. 2020:1-4. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10389-020-01316-w PMid:32837842

Zabuha YY, Mykhailichenko TO, Rak SV. Legal regulation of epidemic security under the COVID-19 pandemic conditions in some post-soviet countries and Poland. Wiad Lek. 2020;73(12 cz 2):2758-67. PMid:33611278




How to Cite

Sirait P, Zaluchu F. Where is the Third E in Controlling Coronavirus Disease-19 in Indonesia? A Mini Review. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2021 Oct. 11 [cited 2021 Dec. 4];9(F):423-7. Available from: https://oamjms.eu/index.php/mjms/article/view/6878



Narrative Review Article