Fatigue on Oil Refinery Workers and Related Factors


  • Iwan Muhamad Ramdan Department of Public Health, Mulawarman University, Samarinda, Indonesia https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1490-3182
  • Krishna Purnawan Candra Department Agricultural Product Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Mulawarman University, Samarinda, Indonesia https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1358-1329
  • Ulfah Rana Mahdiyyah Department of Public Health, Mulawarman University, Samarinda, Indonesia




Work-related fatigue, Demographic factors, Health status, Noise, Work climate, Oil refinery workers


Background: Work fatigue plays a large role in all industries in terms of performance, work safety, and work productivity. Oil and gas is an industry with a high level of occupational safety and health risks. Research of work-related fatigue is needed to detect critical risk factors early in order to prevent the adverse effect of work-related fatigue.

Objectives: This study aims to analyze the prevalence of work fatigue in oil refinery workers at one of the oil refinery companies in Indonesia, and analyze the factors that influence it.

Design and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 224 oil refinery workers. Questionnaire and work-related fatigue scales were used to assess demographic characteristics and work-related fatigue. A medical examination was applied to assess the health status of workers based on blood pressure, body temperature, and respiratory rate. The sound level meter and heat stress meter was used to measure noise and work climate. Cramer’s V correlation was applied to identify correlations between work-related fatigue and other parameters.

Results: Work-related fatigue of 100% was found among workers, with categorized as low, medium, high, and very high in 9.38, 53.57, 30.35, and 6.7% of the workers, respectively. Work-related fatigue was significantly correlated with working period (p=0.028), health status (respiratory rate) (p=0.018), noise exposure (p=0.000) and work climate/heat stress (p=0.001).

Conclusion: The companies should improve the health status of workers, reduce workload for aging workers, control noise, and control heat exposure in the workplace.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...

Plum Analytics Artifact Widget Block


Witter RZ, Tenney L, Clark S, Newman LS. Occupational exposures in the oil and gas extraction industry: State of the science and research recommendations. Am J Ind Med. 2015;344(6188):1173-8. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajim.22316 PMid:24634090

Safari S, Akbari J, Kazemi M, Mououdi MA, Mahaki B. Personnel’s health surveillance at work: Effect of age, body mass index, and shift work on mental workload and work ability index. J Environ Public Health. 2013;2013:289498. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/289498 PMid:23956756

Eyayo F. Evaluation of occupational health hazards among oil industry workers: A case study of refinery workers. J Environ Sci Toxicol Food Technol. 2014;8(12):22-53. https://doi.org/10.9790/2402-081212253

Johnson D. Fatigue is the Enemy of Many Oil and Gas Workers. Industrial Safety and Hygene News (ISHN); 2018. Available from: https://www.ishn.com/articles/108217-fatigue-is-the-enemy-ofmany-oil-and-gas-workers. [Last accessed on 2021 Aug 04].

Chan M. Fatigue: The most critical accident risk in oil and gas construction. Constr Manag Econ. 2011;29(4):341-53.

Williamson A, Lombardi DA, Folkard S, Stutts J, Courtney TK, Connor JL. The link between fatigue and safety. Accid Anal Prev. 2011;43(2):498-515. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2009.11.011 PMid:21130213

Shortz AE, Mehta RK, Peres SC, Benden ME, Zheng Q. Development of the fatigue risk assessment and management in high-risk environments (FRAME) survey: A participatory approach. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019;16(4):522. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16040522 PMid:30781731

Khodabakhsh MR. The role of fatigue and work overload in predicting work situation awareness among workers. Int J Occup Hyg. 2015;7(1):38-44. Available from: http://www.ijoh.tums.ac.ir/index.php/ijoh/article/view/128. [Last accessed on 2021 Aug 04].

Verdonk P, Hooftman WE, van Veldhoven MJ, Boelens LR, Koppes LL. Work-related fatigue: The specific case of highly educated women in the Netherlands. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2010;83(3):309-21. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00420-009-0481-y PMid:19888593

de Vries JD, van Hooff ML, Geurts SA, Kompier MA. Exercise to reduce work-related fatigue among employees: A randomized controlled trial. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2017;43(4):337-49. https://doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3634 PMid:28323305

Horrey WJ, Noy YI, Folkard S, Popkin SM, Howarth HD, Courtney TK. Research needs and opportunities for reducing the adverse safety consequences of fatigue. Accid Anal Prev. 2011;43(2):591-4. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2010.01.014 PMid:21130219

Azwar A, Susilowati IH, Dinar A, Indriyani K, Wirawan M. Impact of work-related and non-work-related factors on fatigue in production/shift workers. KnE Life Sci. 2018;4(5):213. https://doi.org/10.18502/kls.v4i5.2554

Lerman SE, Eskin E, Flower DJ, George EC, Gerson B, Hartenbaum N, et al. Fatigue risk management in the workplace. J Occup Environ Med. 2012;54(2):231-58. https://doi.org/10.1097/jom.0b013e318247a3b0 PMid:22269988

Ummul S, Kameswara R. Shift work and fatigue. J Environ Sci. 2012;1(3):17-21.

Masson VA, Monteiro MI, Vedovato TG. Workers of CEASA: Factors associated with fatigue and work ability. Rev Bras Enferm. 2015;68(3):401-7. https://doi.org/10.1590/0034-71167.2015680312i

Dohrmann SB, Herttua K, Leppin A. Fatigue in ferry shipping employees: The role of work-family conflict and supervisor support. BMC Public Health. 2019;19(1):1693. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-7954-z PMid:31847825

Lee JJ, Moon HJ, Lee KJ, Kim JJ. Fatigue and related factors among hotel workers: The effects of emotional labor and non-standard working hours. Ann Occup Environ Med. 2014;26(1):51. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40557-014-0051-y PMid:25648050

Saito K. Measurement of fatigue in industries. Ind Health. 1999;37(2):134-42. PMid:10319563

Schwartz GL, Sheps SG. A Review of the Sixth Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. Vol. 14. Washington DC: Current Opinion in Cardiology; 1999. Available from: https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/files/docs/guidelines/jnc7full.pdf. [Last accessed on 2021 Aug 04]. https://doi.org/10.1097/00001573-199903000-00014

Royal College of Physicians. National Early Warning Score (NEWS) 2, Standarising the Assessment of Acute-Illness Severity in the NHS. London, UK: Royal College of Physicians; 2017. Available from: https://www.rcplondon.ac.uk/projects/outputs/national-early-warning-score-news-2. [Last accessed on 2021 Aug 04]. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.6947/table-1

O’Neill C, Panuwatwanich K. The impact of fatigue on labour productivity: Case study of dam construction project in Queensland. In: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Engineering, Project, and Production Management (EPPM 2013); 2013. p. 993-1005. https://doi.org/10.32738/ceppm.201310.0095

Abd-Elfattah HM, Abdelazeim FH, Elshennawy S. Physical and cognitive consequences of fatigue: A review. J Adv Res. 2015;6(3):351-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jare.2015.01.011 PMid:26257932

Hsu HC. Age differences in work stress, exhaustion, well-being, and related factors from an ecological perspective. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019;16(1):50. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16010050 PMid:30585250

Åkerstedt T, Discacciati A, Miley-Åkerstedt A, Westerlund H. Aging and the change in fatigue and sleep-a longitudinal study across 8 years in three age groups. Front Psychol. 2018;9:234. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00234 PMid:29568279

Stevelink SA, Fear NT, Hotopf M, Chalder T. Factors associated with work status in chronic fatigue syndrome. Occup Med (Lond). 2019;69(6):453-8. https://doi.org/10.1093/occmed/kqz108 PMid:31375832

Bazazan A, Rasoulzadeh Y, Dianat I, Safaiyan A. Demographic factors and their relation to fatigue and mental disorders in 12-hour petrochemical shift workers. Health Promot Perspect. 2014;4(2):165-72. https://doi.org/10.3233/wor-192865 PMid:25648196

Ismail S, Mohd Zaki N, Abu Husain M. Managing health risk among shift workers in the oil and gas industry in Malaysia. Int J Civ Eng Technol. 2019;10(1):1439-49. Available from: http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/index.asp1439; http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?jtype=ijciet and vtype=10 and itype=01; http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/index.asp1440; http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?jtype=ijciet and vtype=10 and itype=01. [Last accessed on 2021 Aug 04]. https://doi.org/10.31227/osf.io/pnqjz

Stynen D, Jansen NW, Kant J. The impact of work-related and personal resources on older workers’ fatigue, work enjoyment and retirement intentions over time. Ergonomics. 2017;60(12):1692-707. https://doi.org/10.1080/00140139.2017.1334094 PMid:28532293

Saremi M, Rohmer O, Bonnefond A. Combined effects of noise and shift work on fatigue as a function of age. Int J Occup Saf Ergon. 2008;14(4):387-94. PMid:19080043

Brekke IJ, Puntervoll LH, Pedersen PB, Kellett J, Brabrand M. The value of vital sign trends in predicting and monitoring clinical deterioration: A systematic review. PLoS One. 2019;14(1):e0210875. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0210875 PMid:30645637

Tang FC, Li RH, Huang SL. The association between job-related psychosocial factors and prolonged fatigue among industrial employees in Taiwan. PLoS One. 2016;11(3):1-12. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0150429 PMid:26930064

Ho JC, Lee MB, Chen RY, Chen CJ, Chang WP, Yeh CY, et al. Work-related fatigue among medical personnel in Taiwan. J Formos Med Assoc. 2013;112(10):608-15. PMid:23809098

Kjellberg A, Muhr P, Sköldström B. Fatigue after work in noise-an epidemiological survey study and three quasi-experimental field studies. Noise Health. 1998;1(1):47-55. PMid:12689367

Münzel T, Sørensen M, Schmidt F, Schmidt E, Steven S, Kröller-Schön S, et al. The adverse effects of environmental noise exposure on oxidative stress and cardiovascular risk. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2018;28(9):873-908. https://doi.org/10.1089/ars.2017.7118 PMid:29350061

Fredriksson S, Hammar O, Torén K, Tenenbaum A, Waye KP. The effect of occupational noise exposure on tinnitus and sound-induced auditory fatigue among obstetrics personnel: A cross-sectional study. BMJ Open. 2015;5(3):e005793. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2014-005793 PMid:25818267

Hebrani O, Madonna S, Nursetyowati P. The effect of noise on work fatigue in an oil and gas industry. Indones J Urban Environ Technol. 2018;1(2):109. https://doi.org/10.25105/urbanenvirotech.v1i2.2426

NIOSH. Hierarchy of Controls. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2007.

Ismaila SO, Akanbi OG, Oderinu SO. Design of ergonomically compliant desks and chairs for primary pupils in Ibadan, Nigeria. J Eng Sci Technol. 2015;10(1):35-46.

Chen ML, Chen CJ, Yeh WY, Huang JW, Mao IF. Heat stress evaluation and worker fatigue in a steel plant. AIHA J (Fairfax, Va). 2003;64(3):352-9. https://doi.org/10.1080/15428110308984827 PMid:12809541

Makowiec-Dąbrowska T, Gadzicka E, Siedlecka J, Szyjkowska A, Viebig P, Kozak P, et al. Climate conditions and work-related fatigue among professional drivers. Int J Biometeorol. 2019;63(2):121-8. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00484-018-1643-y PMid:30411249

Jacklitsch B, Williams W, Musolin K, Coca A, Kim JH, Turner N. NIOSH Criteria for a Recommended Standard: Occupational Exposure to Heat and Hot Environments. United States: US Department of Health and Human Services; 2016. p. 2016-106. https://doi.org/10.26616/nioshpub2016106




How to Cite

Ramdan IM, Purnawan Candra K, Rana Mahdiyyah U. Fatigue on Oil Refinery Workers and Related Factors. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2021 Oct. 5 [cited 2021 Dec. 4];9(E):887-94. Available from: https://oamjms.eu/index.php/mjms/article/view/6879



Public Health Disease Control