The Molecular Mechanisms of Hypoglycemic Properties and Safety Profiles of Swietenia Macrophylla Seeds Extract: A Review


  • Ratih Dewi Yudhani Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Surakarta, Indonesia; Doctoral Programs in Health and Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
  • Dwi Aris Agung Nugrahaningsih Department of Pharmacology and Therapy, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
  • Eti Nurwening Sholikhah Department of Pharmacology and Therapy, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
  • Mustofa Mustofa Department of Pharmacology and Therapy, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia



Insulin resistance, Swietenia macrophylla, Seeds, Hypoglycemic, Molecular mechanism, Toxicity


BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance (IR) is known as the root cause of type 2 diabetes; hence, it is a substantial therapeutic target. Nowadays, studies have shifted the focus to natural ingredients that have been utilized as a traditional diabetes treatment, including Swietenia macrophylla. Accumulating evidence supports the hypoglycemic activities of S. macrophylla seeds extract, although its molecular mechanisms have yet to be well-established.

AIM: This review focuses on the hypoglycemic molecular mechanisms of S. macrophylla seeds extract and its safety profiles.

METHODS: An extensive search of the latest literature was conducted from four main databases (PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, and Google Scholar) using several keywords: “swietenia macrophylla, seeds, and diabetes;” “swietenia macrophylla, seeds, and oxidative stress;” “swietenia macrophylla, seeds, and inflammation;” “swietenia macrophylla, seeds, and GLUT4;” and “swietenia macrophylla, seeds, and toxicities.”

RESULTS: The hypoglycemic activities occur through modulating several pathways associated with IR and T2D pathogenesis. The seeds extract of S. macrophylla modulates oxidative stress by decreasing malondialdehyde (MDA), oxidized low-density lipoprotein, and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances while increasing antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase). Another propose mechanism is the modulating of the inflammatory pathway by attenuating nuclear factor kappa β, tumor necrosis factor α, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase 2. Some studies have shown that the extract can also control phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/ Akt (PI3K/Akt) pathway by inducing glucose transporter 4, while suppressing phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. Moreover, in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo toxicity studies supported the safety profile of S. macrophylla seeds extract with the LD50 higher than 2000 mg/kg.

CONCLUSION: The potential of S. macrophylla seeds as antidiabetic candidate is supported by many studies that have documented their non-toxic and hypoglycemic effects, which involve several molecular pathways.


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How to Cite

Yudhani RD, Nugrahaningsih DAA, Sholikhah EN, Mustofa M. The Molecular Mechanisms of Hypoglycemic Properties and Safety Profiles of Swietenia Macrophylla Seeds Extract: A Review. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2021 Sep. 12 [cited 2024 Feb. 26];9(F):370-88. Available from:



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