Personal Protective Equipment and Nurse Self-efficacy due to Coronavirus Disease-19 Pandemic: A Systematic Review


  • Nur Meity Sulistia Ayu Doctoral in Nursing Study Program
  • Enie Novieastari Department of Basic Science and Fundamentals Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia
  • Dewi Gayatri Department of Basic Science and Fundamentals Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia
  • Hanny Handiyani Coordinator of Master of Nursing Programs, Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia
  • Diah Arruum Doctoral in Nursing Study Program, Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia



Health-associated infections, Personal protective equipment, Nurse, Self-efficacy, Coronavirus disease-19


BACKGROUND: High number of nurses who infected and died from contracting covid-19 put them in a difficult situation during the covid-19. Personal protective equipment is the final line protection for nurses from the risk of Healthcare Associated Infections, while self-efficacy plays an important role in surviving from stressors during the pandemic.

AIM: This review aims to analyze factors related to the use of personal protective equipment and nurse self-efficacy during Covid-19 pandemic.

METHODS: A systematic and comprehensive search using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses with six electronic databases were used. Nine cross-sectional, three cohort and survey, one case control, one surveillance study met the inclusion criteria.

RESULTS: From 104 articles screened, 16 articles were included in this review. The high self-protection was the main factor preventing nurses from contracting Covid-19 infection. Lack of personal protective equipment and low cautiousness was the primary factor for nurses of contracting Covid-19. Increased stress, anxiety, depressive symptoms, and insomnia were associated with nurse’s low self-efficacy.

CONCLUSION: The best protection for nurses from Covid-19 exposure is the availability and consistent use of personal protective equipment. Moreover, the consideration for designing staff training programmes and psychological support were recommended for building nurses self-efficacy.


Keywords: Health Associated Infections, Personal Protective Equipment, Nurse, Self-efficacy, Covid-19


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How to Cite

Sulistia Ayu NM, Novieastari E, Gayatri D, Handiyani H, Arruum D. Personal Protective Equipment and Nurse Self-efficacy due to Coronavirus Disease-19 Pandemic: A Systematic Review. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2021 Oct. 1 [cited 2023 Oct. 3];9(G):195-202. Available from:



Nursing in Internal Medicine


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