Health Promoting Behaviors and Risk of Cardiovascular Events among Patients with Cardiovascular Diseases


  • Anggi Lukman Wicaksana Department of Medical Surgical Nursing
  • Erika Maharani Department of Cardiology and Vascular, Universitas Gadjah Mada/Dr. Sardjito General Hospital, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
  • Hsing-Mei Chen Department of Nursing, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan, ROC



Cardiovascular events, Cardiovascular risk, Health behavior, Health promotion, Health-promoting behaviors


BACKGROUND: Engagement in health-promoting behaviors (HPB) among patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is important, particularly for the high-and-very-high-risk group. However, information concerning HPB and risk of cardiovascular events among patients with CVD is limited.

AIM: This study aimed to explore HPB and risk of cardiovascular events among patients with CVD.

METHODS: A cross-sectional quantitative study was conducted among adults with confirmed CVD (n = 167) using multistage cluster sampling. Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile 2 and World Health Organization/International Society of Hypertension Risk Prediction Chart were used for measuring HPB and cardiovascular risk levels. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation, one-way ANOVA and multiple linear regression tests.

RESULTS: Women, marriage, low income, and hypertension dominated with 60 years as mean age. Among the subscales of HPB, interpersonal relationship had the highest score while physical activity in the poorest score and almost half of the respondents had a low-risk of cardiovascular events. There was a significant correlation between the nutrition subscale and cardiovascular risk levels and it showed significant difference between low-and high/ very- high-risk groups of cardiovascular events. Although the risk of cardiovascular events did not demonstrate prediction of HPB, age (β _= 0.250; CI = 0.001–0.013), educational level (β _= 0.200; CI = 0.005–0.107), presence of diabetes (β _= 0.183; CI = 0.013–0.286), and smoking (β _= –0.195; CI = –0.372–[–0.005]) explained 20.7% of the HPB variance.

CONCLUSION: Therefore, the authorities of stakeholders need to consider that a tailor-made health-promoting program should be proposed particularly to increase physical activity and promotes healthy nutrition among patients with CVD. Furthermore, considering special needs among patients with CVD are crucial to support them within their cultural perspective.


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How to Cite

Wicaksana AL, Maharani E, Chen H-M. Health Promoting Behaviors and Risk of Cardiovascular Events among Patients with Cardiovascular Diseases. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2021 Oct. 11 [cited 2021 Dec. 4];9(G):135-42. Available from:



Nursing in Internal Medicine