Association between Household Food Security and Anemia among Pregnant Women in Rural Area in Indonesia


  • Trias Mahmudiono Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia; Center for Health and Nutrition Education, Counseling and Empowerment, Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia
  • Erike Duwi Nurdini Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia
  • Aprilia Durotun Nasikhah Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia
  • Chika Dewi Haliman Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia



anemia, food security, pregnant women, Indonesia, health and wellbeing


BACKGROUND: The increase of high anemia prevalence among pregnant women in Indonesia can reflect the raise of anemia potential in pregnancy. Food insecurity might influence the ability of households to meet the nutritional needs of pregnant women.

AIM: This research aimed to find out the relationship between household food security status and anemia in pregnant women in Bektiharjo Village, Semanding District, Tuban Regency.

METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving 50 pregnant women who lived in a typical rural area in Indonesia, namely Bektiharjo Village Semanding Sub-District Tuban District. The United States Household Food Security Survey Module questionnaire was used as the instrument for household food security status, while the level of hemoglobin was measured by the Easy Touch GCHb digital device. The Pearson Correlation test was used as a statistical test for this study.

RESULTS: most respondents were of healthy reproductive age (76%). The prevalence of anemia was 32% affecting mostly women aged 20–35. Forty-six percent of households were experiencing food insecurity. There was a significant relationship between household food security status with anemia among pregnant women (p = 0.019; OR = −0.331).

CONCLUSIONS: Pregnant women with food-insecure household status are more at risk of experiencing anemia, especially iron-deficiency anemia. Increasing consumption of affordable foods that contain non-heme iron and iron enhancers is recommended for pregnant women living in food-insecure households.


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How to Cite

Mahmudiono T, Nurdini ED, Nasikhah AD, Haliman CD. Association between Household Food Security and Anemia among Pregnant Women in Rural Area in Indonesia. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2022 Jan. 2 [cited 2022 Jul. 1];10(E):82-7. Available from:



Public Health Epidemiology


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