Social and Emotional Support Highly Associated with Helplessness among Coronary Heart Disease Patients


  • Aan Nuraeni Department of Critical Care and Emergency Nursing
  • Suryani Suryani Department of Mental Health Nursing
  • Yanny Trisyani Department of Critical Care and Emergency Nursing
  • Iqbal Pramukti Department of Community Nursing



Social support, Helplessness, Coronary heart disease, Cardiac


BACKGROUND: Helplessness is a factor that adversely affects patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). The factors related to this situation have become essential to be investigated. Meanwhile, one of the factors that have the potential to reduce this situation is social support. However, there has been no research related to this in the Indonesian population.

AIM: Therefore, this study aims to assess the relationship between social support and helplessness among patients with CHD.

METHODS: This was a correlational study where 107 outpatient and inpatient patients at a hospital in West Java, Indonesia, were obtained. The data were collected using a demographic questionnaire, Illness Cognition Questionnaire on the dimensions of helplessness, and the Enhancing Recovery in CHD Social Support Inventory. Furthermore, the data were analyzed by Pearson and linear regression.

RESULTS: The respondents were 78% of males, while 22% were female. Most of the patients (88%) were married. The bivariate analysis showed that social support and its subvariable emotional support were significantly related to helplessness (p < 0.05, r = −0.248), while the other subvariable structural and instrumental support were not significantly related (p > 0.05). The regression analysis results showed that social and emotional support had a significant effect (p < 0.05) with R2 (95% CI) of 042 and 0.05, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: The social and emotional support among CHD patients was associated with helplessness. The higher the supports obtained, the lower the patient’s helplessness. Therefore, nurses need to encourage family or those closest to patients to provide adequate social and emotional support.


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How to Cite

Nuraeni A, Suryani S, Trisyani Y, Pramukti I. Social and Emotional Support Highly Associated with Helplessness among Coronary Heart Disease Patients. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2021 Nov. 6 [cited 2021 Dec. 4];9(T6):1-6. Available from: