Culturally Adapted Psychoeducation among Family Caregivers of Schizophrenic Clients: A Scoping Review


  • Imas Rafiyah Department of Mental Health Nursing
  • Suryani Suryani Department of Mental Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia
  • Laili Rahayuwati Department of Fundamental of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia
  • Wandee Suttharangsee Education and Innovative Learning Academy, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, Hatyay, Thailand



Culture, Family caregivers, Psychoeducation, Schizophrenia


Background: As psychoeducation was originally developed from Western, this intervention should be integrated with a culture to obtain effective outcomes. However, how culturally adapted psychoeducation on family caregivers of schizophrenic client developed in previous studies has not been systematically documented. The purpose of this review was to map culturally adapted psychoeducation in previous studies. Methods: This scoping review followed Arksey & O'Malley approach. Inclusion criteria including family caregiver, culture, psychoeducation, schizophrenia. Non-primary and non-experiment studies, non-English language and non-free articles were excluded. Advanced search technique used keywords family caregiver, culture, psychoeducation, schizophrenia on CINAHL, PubMed, and PsycInfo databases. Screening was done by checking duplication, title, and abstract. Full text of relevant articles was read in detail to select eligible articles. Selection results were described in the PRISMA flow chart. Data were analyzed after these were extracted and resumed on the table.   Result: A total of 8 studies were included in this review. More than half of  articles used randomized control trial (RCT) but these studies did not conduct follow up. Most of studies were  in Asia (6) and it conducted  in the outpatient department (6). Almost all studies modified multifamily group psychoeducation with culture theories. The longest duration of intervention was 12 months. Multidiscipline health professional delivered the intervention and most of the were psychiatrist. Coping was the most family caregiver outcomes in reviewed studies. Conclusion: In conclusion, limited studies were obtained in various ethnics and ways. Further studies need to measure effectiveness of the intervention in long term effect.  


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How to Cite

Rafiyah I, Suryani S, Rahayuwati L, Suttharangsee W. Culturally Adapted Psychoeducation among Family Caregivers of Schizophrenic Clients: A Scoping Review. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2021 Nov. 14 [cited 2023 Dec. 6];9(T6):143-52. Available from:

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