The Relationships between Self-care and Coping Strategy among People Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus


  • Kusman Ibrahim Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia
  • Desri Resnawati Department of Medical Surgical Nursing
  • Laili Rahayuwati Department of Community Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia
  • Yusshy Kurnia Herliani Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia
  • Nursiswati Nursiswati Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia



Coping Strategy; Self-Care; People Living with HIV


AIM: This study aims to examine the relationships between self-care and coping strategy among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (PLWH).

METHODS: A cross-sectional design involving 76 subjects of PLWH who attended the HIV clinic at a District Hospital in West Java Province, Indonesia. They met inclusion criteria such as being adult, has been living with HIV for over 1 year, and be able to communicate both verbal and written in Bahasa Indonesia. Self-care was measured by the 41-item Self-care Assessment Worksheet instrument, and coping strategies were measured by the 60-item Jalowiec Coping Scale. Pearson-product moment correlation was performed to examine the relationships between self-care and coping strategy scores.

RESULTS: The majority of respondents (57.8%) used the emotion focused coping strategy such as supportant (31.5%) followed by fatalistic (21%) and optimistic (17.1%) when they deal with stressful situations. Optimistic coping was reported as the most effective coping by the respondents. Nearly half of respondents (42%) have intermediate self-care level which the highest number of self-care was medication. There was a significantly relationship between problem-focused coping strategy and the self-care scores (r = 0.378, p < 0.01). Confrontive coping strategy has positive correlation with symptoms management (r = 0.264, p < 0.05) and stress management (r = 0.280, p < 0.05). Self-care information has positive correlation with palliative coping strategy (r = 0.281, p < 0.05) and supportant coping strategy management (r = 0.236, p < 0.05). Prevention and medication have positive correlation with optimistic emotional coping strategy (r = 0.264, p < 0.05).

CONCLUSION: Understanding PLWH coping strategies could assist nurses to reinforce patient’s positive coping strategies and change maladaptive coping strategies. Nurses could facilitate patients to develop a more adaptive coping strategies in enhancing self-care capability among PLWH.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...

Plum Analytics Artifact Widget Block


World Health Organization. HIV/AIDS. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2020.

Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia. Infodatin HIV AIDS. Indonesia: Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia; 2020.

Lindayani L, Ibrahim K, Der Wang J, Ko NY. Independent and synergistic effects of self-and public stigmas on quality of life of HIV-infected persons. AIDS Care. 2018;30(6):706-13. PMid:29115159

Galuh M, Novani D. Pentingnya pengungkapan status hiv/aids odha pada orang terdekat. J Berk Kesehat. 2016;1(1):47-52.

Salami S, Muvira AA, Yualita P. Studi kualitatif strategi koping penderita HIV AIDS di kota bandung a qualitative study of coping strategies among people living with HIV/AIDS in Bandung. Faletehan Health J. 2021;8(1):22-30.

Folkman S, Lazarus RS, Gruen RJ, DeLongis A. Appraisal, Coping, Health Status, and Psychological Symptoms. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1986;50(3):571-9. PMid:3701593

Sukartini T, Nursalam N, Arifin H. The determinants of willingness to care for people living with HIV‐AIDS: A cross‐sectional study in Indonesia. Health Soc Care Community. 2021;29(3):809-17. PMid:33639031

Nursalam N, Sukartini T, Arifin H, Pradipta RO, Mafula D, Ubudiyah M. Determinants of the discriminatory behavior experienced by people living with HIV in Indonesia: A cross-sectional study of the demographic health survey. Open AIDS J. 2021;15(1):1-9.

Orem DE, Taylor SG. Renpenning, Nursing: Concepts of Practice. Britania Raya: Mosby; 2001.

Maryam S. Strategi coping. J Konseling Andi Matappa. 2017;1(2):101.

Silva RT, da Silva RA, Rodrigues ID, de Souza Neto VL, da Silva BC, de Lima Costa Souza FM. Estratégias de enfrentamento utilizadas por pessoas vivendo com aids frente à situação da doença. Rev Lat Am Enferm. 2018;26:2985.

Hidayanti E. Strategi coping stress perempuan dengan hiv/aids. Sawwa J Stud Gend. 2013;9(1):89-106.

Tang X, Wang HY, Wang M, Ren XH, Jiang FR, Li JL. Structural equation modeling analysis of social support, coping strategies, depression and suicidal ideation among people living with HIV/AIDS in Changsha, China. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2018;14:2923-30. PMid:30464476

Verstraaten EJ, Beeren FM, Janssen JL, Kemper S, Siregar AY, Tromp N, et al. Radboud Repository of the Radboud University Comparative Cost Analysis of Four Interventions to Prevent HIV Transmission in Bandung, Indonesia. Indones J Intern Med. 2020;49(3):236-42.

Musheke M, Bond V, Merten S. Self-care practices and experiences of people living with HIV not receiving antiretroviral therapy in an urban community of Lusaka, Zambia: Implications for HIV treatment programmes. AIDS Res Ther. 2013;10(1):1-13. PMid:23675734

Jambak N, Wahyuni A. Faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi perubahan perilaku pasien HIV/AIDS. J Mutiara Ners. 2018;1(1):1-10.

Safitri EA, Dewi YI. Pengalaman perempuan dengan HIV/AIDS dalam menjalani pengobatan. J Online Mahasiswa Progr Stud Ilmu Keperawatan Univ Riau. 2015;2(2):8719.

Alfian A, Ibrahim K, Rafiyah I. The effect of the E-patuh application on HIV/aids patients’ adherence in consuming antiretroviral. J Keperawatan Padjadjaran. 2019;7(1):49-57.

Ibrahim K, Kurnia HY, Rahayuwati L, Nurmalisa BE, Rifa’atul Fitri SU. Hubungan antara Fatigue, Jumlah CD4, dan Kadar Hemoglobin pada Pasien yang Terinfeksi Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). J Keperawatan Padjadjaran. 2018;5(3):271-80.




How to Cite

Ibrahim K, Resnawati D, Rahayuwati L, Herliani YK, Nursiswati N. The Relationships between Self-care and Coping Strategy among People Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2021 Nov. 10 [cited 2022 Jun. 28];9(T6):52-6. Available from:

Funding data

Most read articles by the same author(s)