Determinants Factors of High-risk Sexual Behavior Pregnancy among Adolescent in Indonesia


  • Cecep Eli Kosasih Department of Critical Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia
  • Tetti Solehati Department of Maternity Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia
  • Wahyu Utomo First Researcher of BKKBN Research Center, Jakarta, Indonesia
  • Heru Heru First Researcher of BKKBN Research Center, Jakarta, Indonesia
  • Amalia Rizqi Sholihah Department of Maternity Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia



Adolescent reproductive health, Determinant factors, Risk sexual behavior


BACKGROUND: The vulnerability of adolescent lifestyles, especially sexual behavior among adolescents, which causes an increase in pregnancy and early marriage.

AIM: This study aimed to analyze the determinants of high-risk sexual behavior among adolescents in Indonesia.

METHODS: A correlational analytic research design was used with a cross-sectional approach using secondary data for the 2017 Indonesian demographic and health survey data (IDHS). The data collection was carried out through filling in the instruments developed by the 2017 IDHS. The data were analyzed using percentages, Chi-square test, and logistic regression. The study population was all adolescents, totaling 9,971 women and 12,612 single men aged 15–24 and living in Indonesia in the 2017 IDHS. The sampling technique used total sampling. Time of research: August-November 2020. Place: research locations in 34 provinces in Indonesia.

RESULTS: In male respondents, it was shown that the factors most influencing high-risk sexual behavior in adolescents were age (p = 0.000), knowledge (p = 0.003), place of residence (p = 0.000), discussion before wet dreams (p = 0.000), age at first wet dream (p = 0.000), age at first dating (p = 0.019), and internet usage (p = 0.000). Meanwhile, female respondents indicated that the most influential factors were age (p = 0.000) and place of residence (p = 0.032).

CONCLUSION: Boys have many factors that influence high-risk sexual behavior than girls. Information on determinant factors of high-risk adolescent sexual behavior can be used as a basis for developing policies for developing interventions in solving problems of premarital pregnancy due to high-risk sexual behavior among adolescents.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...

Plum Analytics Artifact Widget Block


Kementrian Pemberdayaan Perempuan dan Perlindungan Anak. Profil Generasi Milenial Indonesia. Jakarta: Kementerian Pemberdayaan Perempuan dan Perlindungan Anak; 2018.

Sdki K. Survei Demografi dan Kesehatan Indonesia 2017: Kesehatan Reproduksi Remaja; 2017. Available form:

BKKBN. Keluarga Bahagia Keluarga Berencana. Jakarta: BKKBN; 2016.

Santrock JW. Life-span Development, Edisi Ketigabelas. Jakarta: Erlangga; 2012.

Hamid S. Determinan perilaku seksual berisiko pada remaja makassar (studi kasus santri darul arqam gombara dan SMAN 6). Media Kesehatan Masyarakat Indones Univ Hasanuddin. 2018;14(1):68-77.

Wahyuni S, Fahmi I. Determinan perilaku seksual pra nikah remaja pria di Indonesia Hasil SDKI. In: Euclid. Vol. 6. Berlin, Germany: Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals; 2019. p. 177-88.

Control and Prevention, CDC. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. United States: Control and Prevention; 2006.

Statistik BP. Survei Kesehatan Reproduksi Remaja Indonesia 2007. Jakarta: BPS; 2008.

SKRRI. Kesehatan Reproduksi Remaja. Jakarta: SKRRI; 2012.

Prijatni I. Kesehatan Reproduksi dan Keluarga Berencana. Jakarta, Modul Bahan Ajar Cetak Kebidanan; 2016.

BKKBN. BKKBN Fokuskan Peningkatan Akses Dan Mutu Pelayanan Kesehatan Ibu Anak, KB dan Kesehatan Reproduksi.

World Health Organization. State of Health Inequality: Indonesia. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2017.

Lestary H, Sugiharti S. Perilaku berisiko remaja di Indonesia menurut survey kesehatan reproduksi remaja indonesia (SKRRI) Tahun 2007. Indones J Reprod Health. 2011;1(3):136-44.

Pradnyani PE, Putra IG, Astiti NL. Knowledge, attitude, and behavior about sexual and reproductive health among adolescents students in Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia. Global Health Manage J. 2019;3(1):31-9.

Septianah TI, Solehati T, Widianti E. Hubungan pengetahuan, tingkat pendidikan, sumber informasi, dan pola asuh dengan pernikahan dini pada wanita. J Riset Hesti Medan Akper Kesdam I/BB Medan. 2020;4(2):73-81.

Solehati T, Ermiati E, Trisyani M, Hermayanti Y. Hubungan sumber informasi dan usia remaja puteri dengan perilaku perawatan diri saat menstruasi. J Keperawatan Padjadjaran. 2017;5(2):452.

Solehati T, Rahmat A, Kosasih CE. Hubungan media dengan sikap dan perilaku triad kesehatan reproduksi remaja relation of media on adolescents’reproductive health attitude and behaviour. J Penelitian Komunikasi Opini Publik. 2019;23(1):40-53.

Guo W, Nathanson AI. The effects of parental mediation of sexual content on the sexual knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of adolescents in the US. J Child Media. 2011;5(4):358-78.

Alfiyah N, Solehati T, Sutini T. Gambaran faktor-faktor yang berhubungan dengan perilaku seksual pranikah pada remaja SMP. J Pendidikan Keperawatan Indones. 2018;4(2):10443.

George MJ, Odgers CL. Seven fears and the science of how mobile technologies may be influencing adolescents in the digital age. Perspect Psychol Sci. 2015;10(6):832-51.

Solehati T, Rahmat A, Kosasih CE, Hidayati NO. Relationship between age, gender and peer group with reproductive healthy behaviour of teen. J Keperawatan Padjadjaran. 2018;6(2):643.

Coyne SM, Ward LM, Kroff SL, Davis EJ, Holmgren HG, Jensen AC, et al. Contributions of mainstream sexual media exposure to sexual attitudes, perceived peer norms, and sexual behavior: A meta-analysis. J Adolesc Health. 2019;64(4):430-6. PMid:30691937

Macapagal KK, Ashley K, Moskowitz DA, Birnholtz J. Geosocial networking application use, characteristics of app-met sexual partners, and sexual behavior among sexual and gender minority adolescents assigned male at birth. J Sex Res. 2020;57(8):1078-87. PMid:31846592

Solehati T, Kosasih CE, Rahmat A. Hubungan sosiodemografi orang tua dengan sikap remaja tentang kesehatan reproduksi remaja. J Kesehatan. 2018;11(1):21-6.

Caetano ME, Linhares IM, Pinotti JA, da Fonseca AM, Wojitani MD, Giraldo PC. Sexual behavior and knowledge of sexually transmitted infections among university students in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Int J Gynecol Obstetr. 2010;110(1):43-6. PMid:20394925

Rashid S, Mwale M. The effects of sex education on the risky sexual behaviour of school going adolescents: A case study of Mbenjere secondary, Ntaja and Nsanama community day secondary schools. Psychol Dev Soc. 2016;28(1):126-38.

Susanto T, Rahmawati I, Wuryaningsih EW, Saito R. Prevalence of factors related to active reproductive health behavior: A crosssectional study Indonesian adolescent. Epidemiol Health. 201638:e2016041. PMid:27866406

Berlin KB. Education Matters: Empowering Young People to Make Healthier Choices. Berlin, Germany:Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals Social Healthcare Programs; 2011.

Kastbom ÅA, Sydsjö G, Bladh M, Priebe G, Svedin CG. Sexual debut before the age of 14 leads to poorer psychosocial health and risky behaviour in later life. Acta Paediatr. 2015;104(1):91-100.

Cheong JI, Lee CH, Park JH, Ye BJ, Kwon KA, Lee YS, et al. The effect of early menarche on the sexual behaviors of Korean female adolescents. Ann Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2015;20(3):130. PMid:26512348

Lansford JE, Yu T, Erath SA, Pettit GS, Bates JE, Dodge KA. Developmental precursors of number of sexual partners from ages 16 to 22. J Res Adolesc. 2010;20(3):651-77. PMid:20823951

Smith CV, Shaffer MJ. Gone but not forgotten: Virginity loss and current sexual satisfaction. J Sex Marital Ther. 2013;39(2):96-111. PMid:23252636

Vasilenko SA, Ram N, Lefkowitz ES. Body image and first sexual intercourse in late adolescence. J Adolesc. 2011;34(2):327-35. PMid:20488512

Tsitsika A, Andrie E, Deligeoroglou E, Tzavara C, Sakou I, Greydanus D, et al. Experiencing sexuality in youth living in Greece: Contraceptive practices, risk taking, and psychosocial status. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2014;27(4):232-9. PMid:25016561

Lara LA, Abdo CH. Age at time of initial sexual intercourse and health of adolescent girls. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol. 2016;29(5):417-23. PMid:26655691

Tortolero SR, Markham CM, Peskin MF, Shegog R, Addy RC, Escobar-Chaves SL, et al. It’s your game: Keep it real: Delaying sexual behavior with an effective middle school program. J Adolesc Health. 2010;46(2):169-79. PMid:20113923

Lindberg LD, Jones R, Santelli JS. Noncoital sexual activities among adolescents. J Adolesc Health. 2008;43(3):231-8. PMid:18710677

Lefkowitz ES, Vasilenko SA, Leavitt CE. Oral vs. vaginal sex experiences and consequences among first-year college students. Arch Sex Behav. 2016;45(2):329-37.

Abate BB, Kassie AM, Kassaw MW. Prevalence and determinants of early initiation of sexual intercourse among youth girls in Ethiopia. J Pediatr Nurs. 2020;55:e305-12. PMid:32736839

Salih NA, Metaferia H, Reda AA, Biadgilign S. Premarital sexual activity among unmarried adolescents in Northern Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study. Sex Reprod Healthc. 2015;6(1):9-13. PMid:25637418

Mohammed S, Susuman S. Factors associated with level of reproductive health information in Ethiopia. Asia Pac J Res. 2013;2:8.

Niolon PH, Vivolo-Kantor AM, Latzman NE, Valle LA, Kuoh H, Burton T, et al. Prevalence of teen dating violence and co-occurring risk factors among middle school youth in highrisk urban communities. J Adolesc Health. 2015;56(2):S5-13. PMid:25620454

Sevcikova A. Girls’ and boys’ experience with teen sexting in early and late adolescence. J Adolesc. 2016;51:156-62. PMid:27391169

Tolman DL, McClelland SI. Normative sexuality development in adolescence: A decade in review, 2000-2009. J Res Adolesc. 2011;21(1):242-55.

Martinez G, Copen CE, Abma JC. Teenagers in the United States; sexual activity, contraceptive use, and childbearing, 2006-2010 national survey of family growth. Vital Health Stat. 2011;31:1-35. PMid:22256688

Field N, Mercer CH, Sonnenberg P, Tanton C, Clifton S, Mitchell KR, et al. Associations between health and sexual lifestyles in Britain: Findings from the third national survey of sexual attitudes and lifestyles (natsal-3). Lancet. 2013;382(9907):1830-44.

Graaf HD, Kruijer H, Acker J, Meijer S. Seks Onder Je 25ste: Seksuele Gezondheid van Jongeren in Nederland Anno 2012. Delft: Eburon; 2012.

Lenhart A, Purcell K, Smith A, Zickuhr K. Social Media and Mobile Internet Use Among Teens and Young Adults. United States: Millennials: Pew Internet and American Life Project; 2010.

Valkenburg PM, Peter J. Online communication among adolescents: An integrated model of its attraction, opportunities, and risks. J Adolesc Health. 2011;48(2):121-7. PMid:21257109

Shin W, Huh J, Faber RJ. Tweens’ online privacy risks and the role of parental mediation. J Broadcast Electron Media. 2012;56(4):632-49. 135

Görzig A, Ólafsson K. What makes a bully a cyberbully? Unravelling the characteristics of cyberbullies across twenty-five European countries. J Child Media. 2013;7(1):9-27.

Lobe B, Livingstone S, Ólafsson K, Vodeb K. Cross-national Comparison of Risks and Safety on the Internet. London: LSE, EU Kids Online; 2011.

Junger-Tas J, Ribeaud D, Cruyff MJ. Juvenile delinquency and gender. Eur J Criminol. 2004;1(3):333-75.

Heidinger B, Gorgens K, Morgenstern J. The effects of sexual sensation seeking and alcohol use on risky sexual behavior among men who have sex with men. AIDS Behav. 2015;19(3):431-9. PMid:25096894

Sasson H, Mesch G. Parental mediation, peer norms and risky online behavior among adolescents. Comput Hum Behav. 2014;33:32-8.

Baumgartner SE. Adolescent Sexual Risk Behavior on the Internet. Netherlands: Universiteit van Amsterdam; 2013.

Gikas JG, Michael M. Mobile computing devices in higher education: Student perspectives on learning with cellphones, smartphones and social media. Internet Higher Educ. 2013;19:18-26.

Lenhart A. Teens, Smartphones and Texting. United States: Pew Research Center’s Internet and American Life Project; 2012.

Houlihan D, Houlihan M. Adolescents and the social media: the coming storm. J Child Adolescent Behav. 2014;2(2):e105.

Rice E, Winetrobe H, Holloway IW, Montoya J, Plant A, Kordic T. Cell phone internet access, online sexual solicitation, partner seeking, and sexual risk behavior among adolescents. Arch Sex Behav.2015;44(3):755-63. PMid:25344027

van Den Eijnden RJ, Spijkerman R, Vermulst AA, van Rooij TJ, Engels RC. Compulsive Internet use among adolescents: Bidirectional parent-child relationships. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2010;38(1):77-89. PMid:19728076

Liu C, Ang RP, Lwin MO. Cognitive, personality, and social factors associated with adolescents’ online personal information disclosure. J Adolesc. 2013;36(4):629-38. PMid:23849657

Nikken P, Jansz J. Developing scales to measure parental mediation of young children’s internet use. Learn Media Technol. 2014;39(2):250-66. 2013.782038

Notten N, Nikken P. Boys and girls taking risks online: A gendered perspective on social context and adolescents’ risky online behavior. New Media Soc. 2016;18(6):966-88.




How to Cite

Kosasih CE, Solehati T, Utomo W, Heru H, Sholihah AR. Determinants Factors of High-risk Sexual Behavior Pregnancy among Adolescent in Indonesia. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2021 Nov. 14 [cited 2021 Dec. 4];9(T6):69-7. Available from: